资源科学 ›› 2018, Vol. 40 ›› Issue (5): 1040-1050.doi: 10.18402/resci.2018.05.16

• 水资源 • 上一篇    下一篇

中国主要城市水资源价值评价与定价研究

朱永彬1,2(), 史雅娟3,4()   

  1. 1. 中国科学院科技战略咨询研究院,北京 100190
    2. 中国科学院大学,北京 100049
    3. 中国科学院地理科学与资源研究所,北京 100101
    4. 北京城市学院城市发展研究所,北京 100083
  • 收稿日期:2017-09-11 修回日期:2018-03-09 出版日期:2018-05-10 发布日期:2018-05-10
  • 作者简介:

    作者简介:朱永彬,男,河北廊坊人,博士,副研究员,主要从事资源环境经济、可持续发展和政策模拟研究。E-mail:zhuyongbin@casipm.ac.cn

  • 基金资助:
    中国科学院科技战略咨询研究院自主部署项目“百年强国资源环境关键瓶颈问题研究”

Value evaluation and pricing of water resources in major cities in China

Yongbin ZHU1,2(), Yajuan SHI3,4()   

  1. 1. Institutes of Science and Development, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100190, China, 2. University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049, China
    3. Institute of Geographic Sciences and Natural Resources Research, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100101, China
    4. City Development Institute, Beijing City University, Beijing 100083, China
  • Received:2017-09-11 Revised:2018-03-09 Online:2018-05-10 Published:2018-05-10

摘要:

水资源价值评价与定价是编制水资源资产负债表的基础条件,也是确定城市供水价格和水权交易的前提。本文利用模糊数学评价方法,从供水、需水和水质三个方面构建指标体系,指标的选取既满足反映水价的代表性需要,又考虑数据的可获得性,力求指标体系具有可操作性和推广应用价值。基于该评价模型,本文选取中国32个大中城市为研究对象,对其水资源价值进行评价,同时计算出反映支付能力的水资源价格。结果显示,中国水资源价值具有明显的空间分布特征,北方城市水资源价值普遍高于南方城市,反映出中国水资源空间分布和经济社会发展的区域特征。其中,郑州和银川的水资源价值最高,太原、沈阳、石家庄等12个城市的水资源短缺形势也依然较为严峻。水资源价格方面,北京最高,为28.7元/t;青岛、济南、上海和太原等城市的水资源价格也较高(>15元/t)。

关键词: 模糊数学, 城市水价, 价值评价, 水资源

Abstract:

Water resource evaluation and pricing is the foundation for the preparation of a water resource balance sheet, urban water supply price determination and water rights transactions. This paper applied fuzzy mathematics evaluation methods and constructed the index system from the aspects of water supply, water demand and water quality. In selecting representative indexes, it both reflected the water intrinsic value and considered data availability to endow operationality and applicability. Based on the proposed evaluation model, we selected 32 large and medium cities in China as research subjects to evaluate the value of water resources according to water prices that reflect citizens’ ability to pay. It is found that the water resource value in China shows obvious spatial distribution characteristics - water resource value in northern cities is generally higher than t southern cities, reflecting the spatial distribution of water resource supply and regional gaps in economic and social development. For instance, Zhengzhou, Taiyuan and Qingdao have higher value than Guangzhou, Changsha and Fuzhou from the perspective of water supply side; Yinchuan, Nanjing and Zhengzhou have high value than Chongqing, Hangzhou and Guiyang from the water demand side. A higher water resource means the according city either encounters limited water supply or requires plenty of water to satisfy development. Zhengzhou and Yinchuan have the highest comprehensive water resource values; the water shortage situation in 12 cities such as Taiyuan, Shenyang and Shijiazhuang is grim. By pricing water resources, Beijing is the city with the highest water price at 28.7 CNY/ton; followed by Qingdao, Jinan, Shanghai and Taiyuan, with price higher than 15 CNY/ton. Water prices in Chongqing, Guiyang and Nanning are relatively low at 5 CNY/ton.

Key words: fuzzy mathematics, urban water price, value evaluation, water resources