资源科学 ›› 2018, Vol. 40 ›› Issue (4): 719-728.doi: 10.18402/resci.2018.04.06

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中国闲置耕地的区域分布及影响因素研究

金芳芳1,2(), 辛良杰1()   

  1. 1. 中国科学院地理科学与资源研究所陆地表层格局与模拟重点实验室,北京 100101
    2. 河南大学环境与规划学院,开封 475004
  • 收稿日期:2017-09-07 修回日期:2018-01-03 出版日期:2018-05-02 发布日期:2018-05-02
  • 作者简介:

    作者简介:金芳芳,女,安徽阜阳人,硕士生,研究方向为土地评价和土地利用。E-mail: j1649650@163.com

  • 基金资助:
    国家自然科学基金项目(41571095);中国工程院重大咨询项目(2016-ZD-10)。

Spatial distribution and impact factors of farmland abandonment

Fangfang JIN1,2(), Liangjie XIN1()   

  1. 1. Key Laboratory of Land Surface Pattern and Simulation, Institute of Geographic Sciences and Natural Resources Research, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100101,China
    2. College of Environment and Planning, Henan University, Kaifeng 475004,China
  • Received:2017-09-07 Revised:2018-01-03 Online:2018-05-02 Published:2018-05-02

摘要:

耕地闲置已经成为中国的普遍现象,这与中国政府耕地集约利用的主张相违背,也直接影响到农业产量。本文利用中国家庭收入调查(CHIP)数据分析了2002—2013年中国闲置耕地的时空变化特征,采用Tobit模型探讨了影响耕地闲置的主要因素。结果表明:①2002—2013年间,中国闲置耕地比例从0.32%上升到5.72%,可能无法避免“森林转型”引致的耕地在空间上收缩现象,从区域上看,东中西部闲置耕地占耕地总面积的比例分别为0.81%、6.91%与7.65%;②全国层面上,户主的健康状况、家庭耕地总面积、家庭农业收入成为农户耕地闲置与否的最关键因素。户主健康恶化与较多的耕地面积均会促使农户闲置耕地,而家庭农业总收入的增加能起到促进农户充分利用耕地的作用;③平原地区的土地流转能有效利用耕地资源,防止土地闲置,而在山区土地流转对耕地闲置的影响不明显。建议积极建立基层的土地流转中介平台,以推动平原地区的土地流转与全国层面的农业规模经营。

关键词: 闲置耕地, 区域分布, 影响因素, 土地流转, 中国家庭收入调查(CHIP)

Abstract:

Faced with a crisis of growing food demand, the Chinese government has taken drastic steps to safeguard the nation’s farmland and promote intensive land-use. However, China's rapid urbanization and high economic growth have caused significant negative effects on agricultural production. Farmland abandonment has become a general phenomenon in China directly impacting total agricultural production. Here, we analyzed spatial and temporal variation of farmland abandonment in China from 2002 to 2013 with data from the Chinese Household Income Survey (CHIP). Logit modeling was used to capture the main factors that led to this phenomenon. We found that during this period, the ratio of farmland abandonment rises from 0.32%~5.72% in China. Farmland shrinkage caused by “Forest transition” is unavoidable in China. At a regional level, farmland abandonment rates in middle, eastern and western China are 0.81%, 6.91% and 7.65% respectively. The health condition of the householder, total farmland area of the household and agricultural income of the household are the most crucial impact factors determining farmland abandonment. Bad health and large farmland area will induce farmers to idle their farmland and increasing agricultural income will prompt them to take full advantage of farmland. The farmland transfer in plain areas is effective for facilitating farmland use and preventing farmland abandonment, but is not significant in mountain areas. The policy implication here is establishing an intermediary platform for farmland transfer at the grass-roots level to impel farmland transfer in plain areas and agricultural scale management at a national level.

Key words: farmland abandonment, spatial distribution, impact factors, farmland transfer, CHIP