资源科学 ›› 2018, Vol. 40 ›› Issue (3): 465-476.doi: 10.18402/resci.2018.03.01

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国家矿产资源安全研究现状及展望

龙如银(), 杨家慧   

  1. 中国矿业大学管理学院,徐州 221116
  • 收稿日期:2017-08-20 修回日期:2018-02-08 出版日期:2018-03-10 发布日期:2018-03-10
  • 作者简介:

    作者简介:龙如银,男,安徽寿县人,博士,教授,博士生导师,主要研究领域为能源经济与管理。E-mail:longruyin@163.com

  • 基金资助:
    国家自然科学基金项目(71473247;71273258);国家社会科学基金重大招标项目(16ZDA056)

Research status and prospect of national mineral resource security

Ruyin LONG(), Jiahui YANG   

  1. School of Management, China University of Mining and Technology, Xuzhou 221116, China
  • Received:2017-08-20 Revised:2018-02-08 Online:2018-03-10 Published:2018-03-10

摘要:

矿产资源是国民经济发展的基础,是国家政治、军事安全的重要保障,其安全问题日益凸显。本文从矿产资源安全内涵、影响因素、评价体系与方法、保障策略、法律政策角度出发,梳理目前矿产资源安全研究成果。综述发现,矿产资源安全是一个可持续的概念,不仅涉及经济安全,更将环境可持续发展、社会安全、国际安全纳入研究范畴;评价指标也随着时间不断丰富,从原本单一的经济指标转向涵盖环境指标、地理及政治指标等在内的评价体系;国家更加关注矿产资源开采、使用的各个方面,关于矿产资源安全的专项法律政策不断完善;为保障国家综合安全,政府依据经济发展特点及资源禀赋状况,制定矿产资源安全保障策略;评价方法从定性分析转向定量分析。但是,也存在以下不足之处:有些评价指标的建立与分解缺乏系统性、动态性,难以量化,评价结果和预测模型的准确性有待解决;不同层级、不同部门之间的法律政策交叉,管理体系混乱。未来应加强矿产资源安全理论体系、量化及动态分析、国际贸易规则及重大战略影响、政策法规及管理体制方面的研究,规范矿产资源交易,确保矿产资源安全。

关键词: 矿产资源, 安全评价, 评价方法, 研究综述

Abstract:

Mineral resources are the basis of national economic development and an important guarantee for national political and military security. Security issues in this domain have become increasingly prominent. From the perspective of mineral resource safety, influencing factors, evaluation systems, methods, security strategies and legal policy, here we tease out current mineral resource safety research. This review shows that mineral resource security is a sustainable concept, continuously expanding and deepening with development. It not only involves economic security, but also involves environmental sustainability, social security and international security. Evaluation indicators have been gradually enriched from time to time, changing from a single economic indicator to an evaluation system covering environmental indicators, geographical and political indicators. The state pays more attention to all aspects of mineral resource exploitation and use, and special laws and policies are continuously improving. To ensure comprehensive national security, the government formulates the strategy for safeguarding mineral resources based on the characteristics of economic development and resource endowment. The evaluation method has changed from qualitative to quantitative. However, it also has the following shortcomings: the establishment and decomposition of some evaluation indicators lack systematicity and dynamism and this is difficult to quantify. The results of the evaluation and accuracy of the predicted models need to be resolved. The overlap between legal policies of different levels and departments has caused a chaotic management system. In the future, the study of mineral resource security theoretical system, quantitative and dynamic analysis, international trade rules, major strategic impact and legal policy should be strengthened to regulate mineral resource transactions and ensure the safety of mineral resources.

Key words: mineral resources, safety assessment, evaluation methods, review