资源科学 ›› 2018, Vol. 40 ›› Issue (2): 404-416.doi: 10.18402/resci.2018.02.16

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中国北方农牧交错带贫困动态——基于贫困距离指数的分析

任强1,2(), 何春阳1,3(), 黄庆旭1,3, 刘志锋1,3, 李经纬1,2   

  1. 1. 北京师范大学地表过程与资源生态国家重点实验室人与环境可持续研究中心,北京 100875
    2. 北京师范大学地理科学学部减灾与应急管理研究院,北京 100875
    3. 北京师范大学地理科学学部资源学院,北京 100875
  • 收稿日期:2017-03-20 修回日期:2017-09-02 出版日期:2018-02-20 发布日期:2018-02-11
  • 作者简介:

    作者简介:任强,男,山西运城人,博士生,研究方向为景观/区域可持续科学。E-mail:rq_1994@mail.bnu.edu.cn

  • 基金资助:
    国家重点基础研究发展计划项目(2014CB954302);国家自然科学基金委青年科学基金项目(41501195)

The poverty dynamics in the Agro-Pastoral Transitional Zone in Northern China : a multi-scale perspective based on the poverty gap index

Qiang REN1,2(), Chunyang HE1,3(), Qingxu HUANG1,3, Zhifeng LIU1,3, Jingwei Li1,2   

  1. 1. Center for Human-Environment System Sustainability, State Key Laboratory of Earth Surface Processes and Resource Ecology, Beijing Normal University, Beijing 100875, China
    2. Academy of Disaster Reduction and Emergency Management, Faculty of Geographical Science, Beijing Normal University, Beijing 100875, China
    3. School of Natural Resources, Faculty of Geographical Science, Beijing Normal University, Beijing 100875, China
  • Received:2017-03-20 Revised:2017-09-02 Online:2018-02-20 Published:2018-02-11

摘要:

科学准确地评估中国北方农牧交错带的贫困动态对该区的可持续发展具有重要意义。为此,本文采用贫困距离指数,在整体、局部和旗县三个尺度上分析了该区2000—2014年的贫困动态。结果表明,在县域尺度,2000—2014年中国北方农牧交错带所有贫困县均脱贫。全区贫困县减少了167个,贫困县人口减少了4569.76万。贫困缓解与经济发展密切相关。其中,公共财政收入与脱贫县贫困距离指数相关性最大(R=-0.51,P<0.01)。在快速脱贫过程中,该区居民收入分配的不公平加剧。脱贫地区城乡居民收入差距增长了2.11倍,脱贫地区旗县间人均收入的变异系数增长了41.67%。因此,建议在中国北方农牧交错带进一步精准扶贫时,应该注意收入分配公平问题,减少贫富差距,从而实现区域真正的可持续发展。

关键词: 中国, 北方农牧交错带, 贫困动态, 贫困距离指数, 贫困标准, 收入分配公平, 精准扶贫, 可持续发展

Abstract:

The Agro-Pastoral Transitional Zone in Northern China (APTZNC) is one of the most impoverished areas in China. Accurately assessing poverty dynamics in the APTZNC is of significance to regional sustainable development. We used the poverty gap index to investigate the dynamics of poverty in the APTZNC from 2000 to 2014 at three scales: regional, sub-regional and county scales. The results showed that all impoverished counties were lifted out of poverty from 2000 to 2014 based on the poverty gap index. At the county scale, the number of impoverished counties decreased by 167 from 2000 to 2014, and the population in impoverished counties decreased by 45.70 million. Specifically, the number of impoverished counties decreased from 167 in 2000 to 10 in 2010, a reduction of 94.01%. The population in impoverished counties decreased from 45.70 million in 2000 to 2.73 million in 2010, a reduction of 94.03%. From 2010 to 2014, the number of impoverished counties decreased by 10 and the population in impoverished counties decreased by 2.73 million. We also found that poverty alleviation from 2000 to 2014 was closely related with economic development. Among all indicators, public fiscal revenue had the highest correlation with poverty alleviation (r = -0.51, P < 0.01). Meanwhile, difference in incomes between urban and rural residents in the out-of-poverty areas increased from 4 455.27 CNY in 2000 to 11 104.71 CNY in 2014, a 2.11-fold increase. The coefficient of variation in per-capita rural income among out-of-poverty counties also increased from 0.24 in 2000 to 0.34 in 2014, an increase of 41.67%. Thus, we suggest that special attention should be paid to reducing income inequity during targeted poverty alleviation to ensure sustainable development of the APTZNC.

Key words: Argo-Pastoral Transitional Zone in Northern China, poverty gap index, poverty line, income inequity, targeted poverty alleviation measures, sustainable development