资源科学 ›› 2018, Vol. 40 ›› Issue (2): 369-380.doi: 10.18402/resci.2018.02.13

• • 上一篇    下一篇

贫困国家旅游竞争力时间变化及其影响因素

汪侠1(), 刘丹丽1, 沈丽珍2, 何静1, 孙鑫1   

  1. 1.南京大学地理与海洋科学学院,南京 210023
    2.南京大学建筑与城市规划学院,南京 210093
  • 收稿日期:2017-07-19 修回日期:2017-10-18 出版日期:2018-02-20 发布日期:2018-02-11
  • 作者简介:

    作者简介:汪侠,女,安徽怀远人,博士,副教授,主要研究方向为旅游地理、城市与区域规划。E-mail:wangxia128@nju.edu.cn

  • 基金资助:
    国家自然科学基金项目(41371149;41301166);国家旅游局青年专家培养计划课题(TYEPT201422)

Time variation and influencing factors of tourism competitiveness in global poverty-stricken countries

Xia WANG1(), Danli LIU1, Lizhen SHEN2, Jing HE1, Xin SUN1   

  1. 1. School of Geographic and Oceanographic Sciences, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210023, China
    2. Department of Urban Planning and Design, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210093, China)
  • Received:2017-07-19 Revised:2017-10-18 Online:2018-02-20 Published:2018-02-11

摘要:

为揭示贫困国家旅游竞争力的动态变化特征及其成因,基于联合国多维贫困指数和世界经济论坛旅游竞争力报告,使用极差、标准差、极值比率、变异系数等指标及雷达图,对贫困国家的旅游竞争力时间变化和影响因素进行分析。研究发现:① 贫困国家虽然旅游资源丰富,但旅游竞争力整体较弱;② 2013—2015年间,贫困国家内部的旅游竞争力差异在不断加大,而2011—2015年间,贫困国家旅游竞争力与全球旅游竞争力的差距呈现缩小的趋势;③ 高贫困国家旅游竞争力整体弱于低贫困国家,旅游竞争力与经济发展水平之间存在一定的相关关系;④ 价格竞争力和安全防范是贫困国家的竞争优势所在,而文化资源和商务旅游、航空基础设施以及国际开放度等因素普遍薄弱;⑤ 强竞争型的贫困国家除了在旅游资源方面占有相对优势外,优先发展旅游业,并致力于营造良好的商业环境,值得弱竞争型贫困国家借鉴。

关键词: 贫困国家, 旅游竞争力, 时间变化, 影响因素

Abstract:

As the development of tourism has become an important means of poverty alleviation in poor countries, it is of great significance to explore the time variation and influencing factors of tourism competitiveness in poor countries so as to enhance global tourism competitiveness. Based on the multidimensional poverty index of the United Nations and Travel and Tourism Competitiveness Reports by the World Economic Forum, we analyzed time variation from 2007-2015 and factors affecting tourism competitiveness of poor countries using the indexes of range, standard deviation, extreme value ratio, coefficient of variation and radar map. We found that although poor countries are rich in tourism resources generally, tourism competitiveness is weak as a whole. The differences in tourism competitiveness among poor countries are increasing, and the gap in global tourism competitiveness is narrowing. We found that the competitiveness of high-poverty countries as a whole is weaker than low-poverty countries. There is a certain correlation between tourism competitiveness and economic development among poor countries. The strengths of poor countries are price competitiveness and safety and security, while cultural resources and business travel, air transport infrastructure, and international openness are generally weak. In addition to relative advantages in terms of tourism resources, high-competitiveness poor countries are those that give priority to the development of tourism, and are committed to creating a good business environment. For other low-competitiveness poor countries trying to promote economic development, the successful development experience of high-competitive poor countries is worth learning from.

Key words: poverty-stricken countries, tourism competitiveness, time variation, influencing factors