资源科学 ›› 2018, Vol. 40 ›› Issue (1): 125-136.doi: 10.18402/resci.2018.01.12

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九连山亚热带常绿阔叶林小流域气候及水文特征分析

周华(), 刘琪璟()   

  1. 北京林业大学林学院,北京 100083
  • 收稿日期:2017-05-15 修回日期:2017-10-06 出版日期:2018-01-20 发布日期:2018-01-20
  • 作者简介:

    作者简介:周华,男,贵州遵义人,博士生,主要研究方向为森林经理和森林水文。E-mail: jeamourvous@163.com

  • 基金资助:
    国家高新技术发展计划(2013AA122003)

Climate and hydrology characteristics of subtropical evergreen broadleaved forest in Jiulianshan

Hua ZHOU(), Qijing LIU()   

  1. Forestry College, Beijing Forestry University, Beijing 100083, China
  • Received:2017-05-15 Revised:2017-10-06 Online:2018-01-20 Published:2018-01-20

摘要:

森林及其流域是一个复杂的动态自然生态系统,对其降雨、温度、蒸发和径流的长期研究有助于理解系统生态过程的动态变化。根据江西九连山虾公塘气象观测场1975—2015年逐日气象资料及4号水文观测堰2009—2013年小流域逐日径流资料,应用累积距平和小波变换等方法分析九连山亚热带常绿阔叶林气候和小流域径流变化特征及其二者的一致性。结果表明:① 九连山亚热带常绿阔叶林多年平均温度为17.1 ℃,降雨量为1816.3mm,蒸发量为781.6mm,3—10月降雨量约占全年降雨量的82.6%;②多年平均温度在震荡中呈现微弱上升趋势,温度变化倾向率为0.14 ℃/10a;平均降雨量和蒸发量呈现整体下降趋势,变化倾向率分别为-11.81mm/10a和-50.13mm/10a;年均温度、降雨量和蒸发量均存在准14a左右的主要震荡周期;③九连山常绿阔叶林小流域多年平均径流量为1066.2mm,径流系数为0.54;月径流量与降雨量呈显著的线性关系;大雨以上天气时,径流量恢复到降雨前流量水平的持续时间约为12~48h;年内径流量与降雨量存在20d左右的短周期和60d左右的长周期,与蒸发量的震荡格局基本相似,降水量、蒸发量与径流量的震荡周期具有一致性,径流量对年内气候季节变化的响应明显;降水条件是引起径流量变化的主要原因。这些结果表明气候变化对森林小流域径流量的周期性变化有重要影响。

关键词: 九连山, 亚热带常绿阔叶林, 径流量, Morlet小波变换, 水文气候

Abstract:

Forests and their catchments are dynamic and complex natural systems that demand detailed study of local climate change trends and impacts on water resources. In order to understand their ecological complexity and dynamism it is necessary to study the precipitation, temperature, evaporation and runoff at multiple spatial and temporal scales. Based on daily meteorological data from Xiagongtang station in 1975-2015 and runoff from Number 4 station from 2009-2013 in Jiulianshan, climate and stream flow characteristics and their relationships were analyzed using accumulative anomaly and wavelet transformation. We found that the mean annual temperature was 17.1℃, mean annual precipitation was 1816. 3 mm and mean annual evaporation was 781. 6 mm. The precipitation from March to October was 82. 6% of annual precipitation. The mean annual temperature presented an increasing trend with a trend rate of 0. 14℃/10a for past years whereas precipitation and evaporation declined with a slope of -11. 81 mm/10a and -50. 13 mm/10a, respectively. At the same time, there were significant main periods of quasi 14 years for temperature, precipitation and evaporation, and a minor cycle of quasi 20 years for precipitation. The surface runoff was 1066. 2 mm and runoff coefficient was 0. 54. There was a significantly positive correlation between precipitation and surface runoff. After heavy rainfall discharge returning to the original level before raining might take about 12-48 h. In a year, there were significant periods at a scale of 20 and 60 days for surface runoff, precipitation and evaporation and the response of runoff variation to climate change was significant. Precipitation had a significant impact on surface runoff as well as evaporation. These results showed that forests and climate change have an important role modifying cycles of runoff and precipitation in subtropical mountain catchments.

Key words: Jiulianshan, subtropical evergreen broadleaved forest, runoff, Morlet wavelet transform, hydrology and climate