资源科学 ›› 2018, Vol. 40 ›› Issue (1): 64-73.doi: 10.18402/resci.2018.01.07

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农户分化背景下种植结构变动研究——来自全国31省农村固定观察点的证据

赵丹丹1(), 周宏1,2()   

  1. 1. 南京农业大学经济管理学院,南京 210095
    2. 南京农业大学中国粮食安全研究中心,南京 210095
  • 收稿日期:2017-01-01 修回日期:2017-05-13 出版日期:2018-01-20 发布日期:2018-01-20
  • 作者简介:

    作者简介:赵丹丹,女,黑龙江大庆市人,博士生,主要研究方向为农业经济管理。E-mail: 315702335@qq.com

  • 基金资助:
    国家自然科学基金项目(71473121);江苏省高校优势学科建设工程资助项目(PAPD);江苏省普通高校研究生科研创新计划资助项目(KYZZ_0167)

Study on cropping structure adjustment under the background of rural-household differetiation from Rural Fixed Watch Points in 31 provinces of China

Dandan ZHAO1(), Hong ZHOU1,2()   

  1. 1. College of Economics & Management, Nanjing Agricultural University, Nanjing 210095, China;
    2. China Center for Food Saecurity Research, Nanjing Agricultural University, Nanjing 210095, China
  • Received:2017-01-01 Revised:2017-05-13 Online:2018-01-20 Published:2018-01-20

摘要:

本文从农户分化视角出发,系统梳理了农户分化与种植业结构变动两者之间的作用机制,通过2004—2011年国家农村固定观察点农户追踪数据,实证分析了两者之间的变化趋势。研究结果表明:①随着非农市场的发展,在劳动力边际收益差异下,农户逐步出现了两极分化;②由于土地流转市场的发展,农户之间种植业结构变动趋于纯农户流入更多的土地,非农收入越高的农户越倾向于流出土地;③农户内部种植业结构变动受地形及年末耕地面积影响,地形越平缓、年末耕地面积多的纯农户越倾向于种植粮食作物,相反则越倾向于种植经济作物。随着粮食等大田作物专业化服务和外包服务的不断完善,兼业户逐渐提高粮食等大田作物种植比例,且在短时间内选择维持现有种植结构不变,然而当家庭收入中非农收入达到一定水平,兼业户会选择将土地流转出去。以此提出政策建议,提高专业化服务水平及培育现代农民,提高农户种粮积极性,引导农户按照国家宏观战略进行结构调整,避免出现“非粮化”现象。

关键词: 种植结构, 农户类型, 农户分化

Abstract:

The mechanism of household differentiation and changes in planting structure were systematically analyzed using data from Rural Fixed Watch Points in 2004—2011. We found that with the development of non-agricultural markets and gap in marginal income of the labor force, farmers have polarized the choice of the structure of the planting. Because of gradual development of the land circulation market, changes in the planting structure of farmers tends to be more pure farmers, and the higher the non-agricultural income the higher farmers tend to flow out of the land. The change in planting structure of farmers is mainly affected by topography and cultivated land area at the end of the year. The gentler the terrain the more favorable to development of agricultural modernization. Therefore, the pure farmers who have more cultivated land at the end of the year tend to grow food crops. On the contrary, they tend to grow cash crops. As grain and other field crops of professional services and outsourcing services improve, farmers gradually increase grain and other field crop scales, and in a short period of time to choose to maintain the current planting structure unchanged. When non-agricultural income reaches a certain level, farmers choose to land transfer. We discuss policy suggestions, improving agricultural mechanization and professional service levels, cultivating modern farmers, improving farmer enthusiasm for growing grain, guiding farmers to structural adjustment in accordance with national macro strategies to avoid the non-food phenomenon.

Key words: planting structure, type of farmers, diff erentiation of farmers