资源科学 ›› 2017, Vol. 39 ›› Issue (10): 2000-2015.doi: 10.18402/resci.2017.10.18

• • 上一篇    

黔桂喀斯特山地主要生态系统服务时空变化

尚二萍1,2(), 许尔琪1()   

  1. 1.中国科学院地理科学与资源研究所陆地表层格局与模拟重点实验室,北京 100101
    2.中国科学院大学,北京 100049
  • 收稿日期:2017-08-21 修回日期:2017-09-14 出版日期:2017-10-20 发布日期:2017-10-20
  • 作者简介:

    作者简介:尚二萍,女,河南焦作人,博士生,主要从事土地利用变化研究。E-mail:shangerping7@126.com

  • 基金资助:
    国家自然科学基金项目(41601095);国家重点基础研究发展计划(973计划)(2015CB452702)

Temporal and spatial variation of main ecosystem services in Guizhou and Guangxi Karst Mountainous region

Erping SHANG1,2(), Erqi XU1()   

  1. 1. Key Laboratory of Land Surface Pattern and Simulation,Institute of Geographic Sciences and Natural Resources Research,Chinese Academy of Sciences,Beijing 100101,China
    2. University of Chinese Academy of Sciences,Beijing 100049,China
  • Received:2017-08-21 Revised:2017-09-14 Online:2017-10-20 Published:2017-10-20

摘要:

黔桂喀斯特山地的生态系统服务评估是生态系统恢复、生态功能区划和建立生态补偿机制、保障国家生态安全的重大战略需求。本文在降水贮存量法、修正土壤流失方程RUSLE、植被固碳释氧等方法基础上,基于实际径流小区实验数据,修正或引入径流系数、降雨侵蚀力、石漠化因子、岩石风化固碳等参数模型,定量评估1990-2015年包括水源涵养、土壤保持和固碳释氧等3项主要生态系统服务的时空变化。研究结果表明:①研究区水源涵养、土壤保持、固碳量和释氧量的总量为630.15亿m3/a、189.02亿t/a、6187.49万t/a和16 002.18万t/a;单位量分别为2943.43 m3/(hm2·a)、885.18t/(hm2·a)、2.89t/(hm2·a)和7.47t/(hm2·a);②水源涵养功能以低、较低等级为主,分别占总面积的33.72%和20.55%;土壤保持能力以低、较低和极高等级为主,分别占总面积的24.90%、20.90%和21.44%;固碳释氧功能等级以较低、中等和较高等级为主,分别占总面积的35.47%、29.83%和21.49%;③林地对生态系统服务的贡献最大,其水源涵养、土壤保持和固碳释氧生态系统服务分别是耕地和草地的1.85与2.55倍, 1.70与1.03倍, 1.16与1.09倍;④1990-2015年,黔桂喀斯特山地水源涵养量、土壤保持量和固碳释氧均呈现增加趋势:对比1990-2000年和2000-2015年两个时段,前一时段水源涵养量和土壤保持量均呈下降趋势,下降幅度分别为6.25%和3.45%;后一时段水源涵养量、土壤保持量、固碳量和释氧量均呈增加趋势,增加幅度在2.65%~7.49%之间。

关键词: 黔桂喀斯特山地, 生态系统服务, 水源涵养, 土壤保持, 固碳释氧, 岩石风化固碳

Abstract:

The ecosystem service assessment of Guizhou and Guangxi karst mountainous region is a major strategic requirement of ecological system restoration,ecological function zoning and the establishment of ecological compensation mechanism to guarantee national ecological security in China. Here we calculated main ecosystem services by pulling rainfall erosivity based on experimental data of actual runoff area,rocky desertification factor and rock-weathering-related carbon sinks into the precipitation storage method,revised universal soil loss equation and carbon sequestration equation. Temporal and spatial changes across the three major ecosystem service functions,including water conservation,soil conservation,and carbon sequestration from 1990 to 2015 were estimated. We found that the total amount of water conservation,soil conservation,carbon sequestration and oxygen release was 63.015 billion m3/year,16.492 billion tons,61.8749 million tons/year and 160.0218 million tons/year; the unit amount was 294.34m3/hm2,77.037t/(hm2·a),2.89t/hm2 and 7.47t/hm2,respectively. The proportion of low and lower water conservation were 33.72% and 20.55%;the proportion of low,lower of the soil conservation were 49.91% and 31.21%;the proportion of lower,middle and high carbon fixation and oxygen release were 35.47%,29.83% and 21.49%. The contribution of karst forest land to water conservation,soil conservation and carbon fixation services is biggest. The proportion of water conservation,soil conservation and carbon fixation of forest land,cultivated land and grassland was 1:1.85:2.55,1:1.64:1.02 and 1:1.16:1.09. From 1990 to 2015,main ecosystem services such as water conservation,soil retention and carbon fixation all increased. From 1990 to 2000 and 2000 to 2015,the trend of water conservation and soil retention in the previous period was opposite and the variation range was between 6.25 and 13.70%. Water conservation in the latter period and carbon sequestration showed an increasing trend of 2.865%~7.493%.

Key words: Guizhou and Guangxi Karst Mountain region, ecosystem services, water conservation, soil conservation, carbon fixation and oxygen release, rock-weathering-related carbon sinks