资源科学 ›› 2017, Vol. 39 ›› Issue (10): 1964-1974.doi: 10.18402/resci.2017.10.15

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基于地形分异指数的黔桂喀斯特山地土地利用垂直分布特征

张红旗1(), 尚二萍1,2, 于竹筱1,2   

  1. 1. 中国科学院地理科学与资源研究所陆地表层格局与模拟重点实验室, 北京 100101
    2. 中国科学院大学,北京 100049
  • 收稿日期:2017-08-23 修回日期:2017-09-15 出版日期:2017-10-20 发布日期:2017-10-20
  • 作者简介:

    作者简介:张红旗,男,黑龙江佳木斯人,博士,研究员,主要从事土地评价、土地利用及区域农业发展研究。E-mail:zhanghq@igsnrr.ac.cn

  • 基金资助:
    国家重点基础研究发展计划项目(973 计划)(2015CB452702);国家自然科学基金项目(41601095)

Vertical distribution characteristics of land use in Guizhou and Guangxi Karst Mountainous region based on terrain differentiation indicators

Hongqi ZHANG1(), Erping SHANG1,2, Zhuxiao YU1,2   

  1. 1. Key Laboratory of Land Surface Pattern and Simulation,Institute of Geographic Sciences and Natural Resources Research,Chinese Academy of Sciences,Beijing 100101,China
    2. University of Chinese Academy of Sciences,Beijing 100049,China
  • Received:2017-08-23 Revised:2017-09-15 Online:2017-10-20 Published:2017-10-20

摘要:

以往研究刻画地形因子与土地利用的关系,皆是对整个研究区地形特征进行统计,难以揭示土地利用垂直分布在局部的空间差异。本文以黔桂喀斯特山地为例,通过GIS空间分析技术,构建地形分异指数—海拔(坡度)分异指数,刻画土地单元在一定范围内的相对高低(陡缓),以分析和揭示研究区土地利用垂直分布特征的局地差异。结果表明:①应用传统方法分析发现,耕地、水域和建设用地在0~200m的低海拔比重较高,而林地和草地在各海拔范围皆有分布。耕地、水域和建设用地主要分布在0~5º的平缓区域,而陡坡区域主要被林地和草地所占据;②应用地形分异指数发现,耕地、水域和建设用地指数多小于1,指数越小,趋于低洼和平缓区域分布的比重越大;林地和草地则多大于1,皆多趋于相对高海拔和陡坡分布;③耕地和建设用地的地形分异指数随着海拔自东南向西北升高而呈增加趋势,表明两类用地趋于相对高海拔、陡坡区域分布的比重在增加,平均海拔更高的县(市)向高海拔、陡坡区域进行土地资源开发的程度更大。因此,地形分异指数提供了一种可行的定量分析方法,既可支撑传统方法发现的规律,还可揭示土地利用垂直分布的局部相对差异。

关键词: 土地利用, 垂直分布, 地形分异指数, 黔桂喀斯特山地

Abstract:

Previous studies have quantitatively characterized the relationship between land use and topographical factors using statistical terrain features of a whole study area. This does not reveal the spatial terrain distribution of land use. Based on spatial techniques,here we constructed terrain differentiation indicators,including elevation differentiation index and slope differentiation index to quantify the spatial difference of terrain gradient characteristics. Taking the Guizhou and Guangxi Karst Mountainous Region as our study area,terrain differentiation indicators were applied to explore the spatial terrain gradient characteristics of different land uses. Arable land,water body and construction land are primarily located in the low elevation area. The distribution of the forest and grassland is relatively even across different elevation classes. Arable land,water body and construction land are primarily located in low-lying areas,but steep areas are covered by forest and grassland. Using terrain differentiation indicators,it found that most of those for arable land,water body and construction land are smaller than one,indicating that these land use types tended to be located in areas with relative low altitude and slight slopes. In contrast,terrain differentiation indicators of forest and grassland were mostly larger than one,meaning that they tended to be located in areas with a high-altitude and steep slope. With increasing elevation,terrain differentiation indicators of arable land and construction land increased. This implies that the proportions of arable land and construction land located in high-altitude and steep areas increased. A higher intensity of land resource development to high-altitude and steep slope areas in counties (cities)of higher average altitude. Terrain differentiation indicators provide a quantitative method that supports the results of traditional statistical analysis and reveals local relative differences in the vertical distribution of land use.

Key words: land use, vertical distribution, terrain differentiation index, Guizhou and Guangxi Karst Mountainous Region