资源科学 ›› 2017, Vol. 39 ›› Issue (10): 1801-1811.doi: 10.18402/resci.2017.10.01

• •    下一篇

中国山区耕地撂荒程度及空间分布——基于全国山区抽样调查结果

李升发1,2,3(), 李秀彬1,2(), 辛良杰1, 谈明洪1, 王学1, 王仁靖1,2, 蒋敏1,2, 王亚辉1,2   

  1. 1. 中国科学院地理科学与资源研究所陆地表层格局与模拟院重点实验室,北京100101
    2. 中国科学院大学,北京100049
    3. 广州地理研究所,广州510070
  • 收稿日期:2017-08-12 修回日期:2017-09-11 出版日期:2017-10-20 发布日期:2017-10-20
  • 作者简介:

    作者简介:李升发,男,广东三水人,博士,助理研究员,主要从事土地利用变化研究和土地规划相关工作。E-mail:li_shengfa@126.com

  • 基金资助:
    国家重点基础研究发展计划“973”项目(2015CB452706);国家自然科学基金重大国际合作项目(41161140352)

Extent and distribution of cropland abandonment in Chinese mountainous areas

Shengfa LI1,2,3(), Xiubin LI1,2(), Liangjie XIN1, Minghong TAN1, Xue WANG1, Renjing WANG1,2, Min JIANG1,2, Yahui WANG1,2   

  1. 1. Key Laboratory of Land Surface Pattern and Simulation,Institute of Geographical Sciences and Natural Resources Research,Chinese Academy of Sciences,Beijing 100101,China
    2. University of Chinese Academy of Sciences,Beijing 100049,China
    3. Guangzhou Institute of Geography,Guangzhou 510070,China
  • Received:2017-08-12 Revised:2017-09-11 Online:2017-10-20 Published:2017-10-20

摘要:

耕地撂荒是当前全球山区主要的土地利用变化现象,它深刻地改变了山区农村土地利用结构、农业景观和农户生计,并带来了巨大的生态环境和社会经济效应。2000年以来,随着中国劳动力成本的快速上升和农村劳动力的大量析出,中国山区农业因地形限制,机械化发展受阻,耕地面临着较大的撂荒风险。越来越多的案例研究和报道表明中国山区耕地撂荒现象越演越烈。中国山区面积广、坡耕地比重大,耕地撂荒不仅关系到山区农地的合理利用政策和山区可持续发展政策的制定,并可能引起粮食安全问题,但目前仍缺少全国层面的定量化评估研究。因此,本研究通过开展大范围的抽样调查对中国山区县撂荒规模进行了推算,以期为相关政策制定以及耕地边际化进一步研究提供参考。研究结果表明,在235个调查村庄中,78.3%的村庄出现耕地撂荒现象;基于县样本统计的2014-2015年全国山区县耕地撂荒率为14.32%;山区耕地撂荒率在省级尺度上呈现出南高北低的空间格局,其中,长江流域一带的山区耕地撂荒率最高,东北的长白山区最低。

关键词: 耕地撂荒, 耕地利用边际化, 习惯亩, 中国山区

Abstract:

Cropland abandonment is the main land-use change in mountainous areas globally. It has profoundly altered rural land-use structure,agricultural landscapes,and farmer livelihoods in mountainous areas and has huge environmental and socioeconomic impacts. Since 2000,with the rapid rise in labor costs and the exodus of the rural labor force,croplands in China’s mountainous areas have been facing a greater risk of abandonment due to rough terrain and slow development of agricultural mechanization. Case studies and reports have increasingly demonstrated that cropland abandonment in these areas is severe. Considering that sloping croplands account for about 25% of total croplands in China,cropland abandonment is not only related to informed policy-making regarding land use and sustainable rural development in mountainous areas,but possibly has a significant negative impact on food security. Quantitative analyses of cropland abandonment at a national level in China have not been performed. Hence,in this study,a large-scale survey was carried out to estimate the extent of cropland abandonment in mountainous counties to offer a scientific basis for relevant policy-making and further study of cropland marginalization. The results show that 78.3% of 235 surveyed villages have experienced cropland abandonment to some extent. During 2014-2015,the abandonment rate of croplands in mountainous counties was 14.32%,showing a distribution pattern of “south-high and north-low” at the provincial level. The abandonment rate for the Yangtze River Basin was the highest,while that for the northeastern mountainous area was the lowest.

Key words: cropland marginalization, cropland abandonment, customary-mu, Chinese moun-tainous areas