资源科学 ›› 2017, Vol. 39 ›› Issue (7): 1291-1302.doi: 10.18402/resci.2017.07.07

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基于“场论”的游客不文明行为表达——以八达岭长城刻画为例

张建荣1,2(), 赵振斌1(), 张天然1   

  1. 1. 陕西师范大学地理科学与旅游学院,西安 710119
    2. 山西大学商务学院管理学院,太原030031
  • 收稿日期:2016-10-17 修回日期:2017-05-04 出版日期:2017-07-20 发布日期:2017-07-20
  • 作者简介:

    作者简介:张建荣,女,山西定襄人,博士生,研究方向为旅游开发与规划。E-mail:4568118@qq.com

  • 基金资助:
    国家自然科学基金项目(41571174);国家旅游局研究型英才培养项目 (WMYC20151065)

Tourist behavior and expression based on field theory:graffiti on the badaling section of Great Wall of China

Jianrong ZHANG1,2(), Zhenbin ZHAO1(), Tianran ZHANG1   

  1. 1. School of Geography and Tourism,Shaanxi Normal University,Xi'an 710119,China
    2. The Faculty of Management,Business College of Shanxi University,Taiyuan 030031,China
  • Received:2016-10-17 Revised:2017-05-04 Online:2017-07-20 Published:2017-07-20

摘要:

勒温“场论”指出人的行为是个体要素与其周围环境相互作用形成心理场的结果。游客在长城上刻画这种典型的不文明行为,也必然与个体要素和环境要素有着深层次的联系。立足“刻画是一种表达”的观点,研究发现:当个体需求与环境要素之间存在不和谐,游客对长城意义的认知并不完整时,便产生了刻画意义超越保护意义的心理场,从而依存情感原则以不文明行为呈现于公众面前,所以“心理场”意义失衡是不文明行为产生的根本动力系统。深入探究游客的表达诉求和旅游环境,发挥游客个体要素能动性和环境对个体的正向影响力,构筑参与型组织管理形态使不文明行为得到消解,必将为开发和保护旅游景观资源提供新途径。

关键词: 场论, 游客, 不文明行为, 刻画, 表达, 心理场, 长城

Abstract:

Under Lewin's Field Theory, behavior is the result of interactions between individuals and the environment,forming the psychological field. Carving and writing on the Great Wall of China is a typically uncivilized behavior and a hot issue in tourism research. Here,we took 4120 photos of tourist graffiti on the Great Wall of China to discuss this behavior. The behavior and content of graffiti on the Great Wall reflects changes in tourism activity,social interaction and consciousness;it also represents the inner demands of tourists. In the course of travel activities,the Great Wall is given a unique function as expression of space,carrying a variety of emotions,expression behavior,situational space utilization,group interaction and inclusion or exclusion,as well as rhetoric in response to many characteristics. Based on the viewpoint that graffiti is a kind of expression,we found that the psychological field with the meaning of graffiti beyond protection is produced when there is disharmony between individual needs and environmental factors,and tourist’ cognition about the meaning of the Great Wall is not complete. Therefore,uncivilized behavior is shown in public with emotional principles and unbalanced meaning of Field Theory acts as the fundamental driving force. Uncivilized behavior will be digested by researching the express demands and tourism environment of tourists to form participatory management and play a positive influence with individual initiatives and the environment; ultimately it will provide a new way for the development and protection of precious tourism landscape resources.

Key words: field theory, tourists, uncivilized behavior, graffiti, expression, psychological field, Great Wall