资源科学 ›› 2017, Vol. 39 ›› Issue (7): 1272-1280.doi: 10.18402/resci.2017.07.05

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2000-2015年中国典型草原草地动态及其对管理政策的响应

杨勇1,2(), 邓祥征2, 白羽萍2, 王国峰2, 贾斯琪2   

  1. 1.河南财经政法大学资源与环境学院,郑州 450046
    2.中国科学院地理科学与资源研究所,北京 100101
  • 收稿日期:2016-12-10 修回日期:2017-05-05 出版日期:2017-07-20 发布日期:2017-07-20
  • 作者简介:

    作者简介:杨勇,男,湖南衡南人,博士后,讲师,研究方向为GIS与资源评价。E-mail:yayo2004@163.com

  • 基金资助:
    国家杰出青年科学基金(71225005)

Grassland dynamics and response to management policies in China's typical steppe from 2000 to 2015

Yong YANG1,2(), Xiangzheng DENG2, Yuping BAI2, Guofeng WANG2, Siqi JIA2   

  1. 1. College of Resources and Environment Science,Henan University of Economics and Law,Zhengzhou 450046,China
    2. Institute of Geographic Sciences and Natural Resources Research,Chinese Academy of Sciences,Beijing 100101,China
  • Received:2016-12-10 Revised:2017-05-05 Online:2017-07-20 Published:2017-07-20

摘要:

中国实施的生态治理和生态补偿政策,一定程度减缓了草地退化进程,但草地生产功能与生态功能之间的矛盾尚未根本解决。本研究以中国典型草原区呼伦贝尔市为研究区域,基于遥感影像资料和农牧户调研数据,采用空间自相关分析和参与式农村评估方法,分析呼伦贝尔市2000-2015年草地时空动态特征,研究结果表明,两个研究时段内,草地质量综合指数减少的面积分别占草地总面积的60.03%和24.9%,皆以轻度减少为主;草地变化空间格局上呈现显著的集聚特征,草地质量综合指数变化的低值集聚区主要位于大兴安岭以东的农牧区域,高值集聚区主要位于西部典型草原区。通过对样本点草地变化与草牧业发展政策的相关性分析发现,禁牧封育、草畜平衡和草原补贴政策对草地质量降低起到了一定遏制作用,但政策失灵和执行效率偏低弱化了政策效应。

关键词: 草地变化, 管理策略, 典型草原区, 呼伦贝尔

Abstract:

Grassland is a basic resource for human survival that provides basic material for husbandry development and protection for land ecosystems. With global climate change and intensification of human activity,grassland degradation in China is a major issue. Policy interventions have been the main measure to control restrain grassland degradation and protect and regain grassland resources. With implementation of ecological management and ecological compensation policies,the process of grassland degradation has slowed,however,the contradiction between grassland production and ecological function has not been solved. Here,we selected Hulunbuir (a typical steppe in China)and used field surveys and remote sensing image data to analyze spatiotemporal differentiation of grassland changes between 2000 and 2015. Our aim was to evaluate the defects of national grassland policy on eco-animal husbandry. We found that the grassland quality comprehensive index decreased in area,accounting for 60.03% and 24.9% of the total area in the two periods and indicating a slight decrease. The change in grassland showed a clustered character. We found that the low value clustered region of grassland change is located in the farming areas east of Khingan,and high value clustered region of grassland change is located in the west typical steppe. Through investigating grassland policies we found that relevant policies such as enclosure and grazing prohibition,livestock balance and husbandry subsidies to grassland change has certainly played a positive role; however,they are alone not enough to prevent grassland degradation. Due to lack of policy and operational mechanisms,the effect of policies are lagging and there is further scope for significant effects.

Key words: grassland change, management policies, typical steppe, Hulunbuir