资源科学 ›› 2017, Vol. 39 ›› Issue (5): 964-977.doi: 10.18402/resci.2017.05.16

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1961-2015年中国潜在蒸散时空变化特征与成因

吴霞(), 王培娟(), 霍治国, 白月明   

  1. 中国气象科学研究院,北京 100081
  • 收稿日期:2017-01-03 修回日期:2017-03-15 出版日期:2017-05-20 发布日期:2017-05-20
  • 作者简介:

    作者简介:吴霞,女,黑龙江哈尔滨人,硕士生,研究方向为农业气象。E-mail:wuxia0428@163.com

  • 基金资助:
    国家自然科学基金(41371410)

Spatio-temporal distribution characteristics of potential evapotranspiration and impact factors in China from 1961 to 2015

Xia WU(), Peijuan WANG(), Zhiguo HUO, Yueming BAI   

  1. Chinese Academy of Meteorological Sciences,Beijing 100081,China
  • Received:2017-01-03 Revised:2017-03-15 Online:2017-05-20 Published:2017-05-20

摘要:

基于中国552个气象站点1961-2015年逐日气象数据,利用Penman-Monteith公式得到各站点逐日ET0,以全国和各干湿气候区为研究单元,从年、季节和年代际尺度分析ET0的时空分布特征及其变化成因。结果表明:全国各站点年平均ET0为621~1733mm,在年、年代际尺度表现为干旱区ET0最高、半干旱区和湿润区次之、半湿润区最低;季节尺度上,ET0的空间分布存在明显差异,且夏季ET0最高、春秋季次之、冬季最低。全国年平均ET0以0.52mm/a的速率递减,该下降趋势在1972年存在突变现象;干旱区和湿润区大部分站点ET0呈减小趋势,且干旱区减小速率较快;而在半干旱区和半湿润区,ET0呈增加和减小趋势的站点数大致相当。研究表明,1961-2015年中国ET0呈减少趋势主要是由风速减小、日照时数降低和水汽压微弱增加共同导致的,而20世纪90年代以后ET0的增加趋势主要受水汽压、日照时数和最低气温的共同影响。

关键词: 潜在蒸散, 干湿气候区, 时空分布特征, 变化成因, 中国

Abstract:

The spatio-temporal distribution characteristics of ETo regarding national and four climatic regional scales were analyzed at annual,seasonal and decadal scales to obtain the spatio-temporal pattern for ETo. Results show that the average annual ETo is 620-1729mm in China. The regions with the highest ETo are mainly distributed in arid regions,while areas with lower ETo are concentrates in semi-arid,humid and semi-humid regions at both 55-year average and different decadal scales. At a seasonal scale,the spatial distributions of ETo show a clear pattern:ETo is the highest in summer,followed by spring and autumn,and the lowest in winter,accounting for 39%,30%,21% and 10% of average annual ETo respectively. Temporally,the average annual ETo decreased at a rate of 0.52mm/a from 1961 to 2015,and the decreasing trend has a mutation phenomenon in 1972. Although there is an increasing trend since the last decade of the 20th century,it did not detect the mutation year using Mann-Kendall methods. Trends of ETo in different climate regions are distinctive. ETo in most sites decreased in arid region and humid regions,and the meteorological stations tended to decrease in arid regions more than in humid regions. In semi-arid and semi-humid regions,the number of sites is roughly equivalent regarding those that increased or decreased for ETo. More than 85% of the sites in our country have ETo mainly affected by wind speed and sunshine time. The decreasing trend of ETo in recent 55 years was mainly caused by a decrease in wind speed,reduced sunshine time and a slight increase in vapor pressure. The major reason of ETo increase was vapor pressure, and the second were sunshine time and the lowest air temperature.

Key words: potential evapotranspiration, wet and dry climatic regions, spatio-temporal distribution characteristics, reason for change, China