资源科学 ›› 2017, Vol. 39 ›› Issue (4): 795-804.doi: 10.18402/resci.2017.04.19

• • 上一篇    

中国湿地保护立法的现状、问题与完善对策

潘佳(), 汪劲()   

  1. 北京大学法学院,北京 100871
  • 收稿日期:2016-09-01 修回日期:2017-01-23 出版日期:2017-04-30 发布日期:2017-04-25
  • 作者简介:

    作者简介:潘佳,男,河北保定人,博士生,主要研究方向为环境与资源保护法学。E-mail:pjpj99@foxmail.com

  • 基金资助:
    国家社会科学基金重点项目 (12AZD062)

The situation,problems and countermeasures surrounding wetland protection legislation in China

Jia PAN(), Jin WANG()   

  1. Peking University Law School,Beijing 100871,China
  • Received:2016-09-01 Revised:2017-01-23 Online:2017-04-30 Published:2017-04-25

摘要:

湿地具有重要的生态价值,在中国具有重要的生态地位,然而现有研究中对中国湿地保护立法进行整体、系统和深入分析的成果尚不多见,为此,从立法角度研究中国有关湿地保护的规定、问题及对策具有重要的现实意义。回顾中国湿地保护相关的立法及政策,相继经历了1992年中国加入湿地公约以前为谋取经济利益保护湿地生物资源立法时期,1992年加入湿地公约以后至2012年“十八大”前逐步认识湿地生态价值采取就地保护湿地的立法时期,以及“十八大”以来至今将湿地作为环境要素独立保护的立法时期。就当前中国有关湿地保护的立法而言,有关湿地保护规定的数量虽然多,却存在诸多不足,集中表现为:相关规定目标定位偏离、内容零散化、缺乏操作性;湿地保护的专门规定法律位阶过低;湿地的定义和范围界定混乱;有关湿地保护及利用的规定严重滞后。本质上讲,上述问题的产生源于专门和可操作的湿地保护法规缺位。由此,亟待完善湿地保护的相关立法,这些措施主要包括:以颁布《湿地保护条例》等专门法规为核心寻求突破;对涉及湿地保护利用的现有法规与政策规定进行系统评估和清理;完善与湿地保护相适应的配套机制和运行体制。

关键词: 湿地保护, 立法, 问题, 完善对策, 中国

Abstract:

Wetlands have important ecological value,and important ecological status in China. However,there are few systematic and in-depth analyses of wetland protection legislation in China. It is of great practical significance to study the regulations,problems and countermeasures surrounding wetland protection from a legislative point of view. Historically,China’s wetland protection legislation and policies have involved several periods. Before China’s accession to the Convention on Wetlands in 1992,the legislation period was one of wetland biological resources for economic benefit. After joining the Convention to the 18th CPC National Congress in 2012,the legislation period involved protecting wetlands on the spot while recognizing the great ecological value of wetlands. Wetlands have been protected as an environmental factor since the 18th CPC National Congress. Current wetland protection legislation in China has many deficiencies. For example,some relevant provisions have deviant targets,scattered content and lack operationali-zation. The legal hierarchy of special wetland provisions is too low. The definition and scope of wetlands are confusing. The regulations on wetland protection and utilization are seriously lagging. Essentially,these problems arise from the absence of specific and operational wetland protection legislation and it is urgent that we perfect relevant legislation wetland protection. These measures mainly include promulgating the Wetland Protection Ordinance and other specialized laws and regulations as a core breakthrough. Systematically evaluating and cleaning existing regulations and policies related to wetland conservation and utilization is needed. Last,wetland protection can be improved by adapting to the matching mechanism and operating system.

Key words: wetland conservation, legislation, problem, countermeasures, China