资源科学 ›› 2017, Vol. 39 ›› Issue (4): 713-722.doi: 10.18402/resci.2017.04.12

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中国水稻生产的碳足迹分析

王兴1(), 赵鑫1, 王钰乔1, 薛建福2, 张海林1()   

  1. 1. 中国农业大学农学院/农业部农作制度重点实验室,北京 100193
    2. 山西农业大学农学院,太谷 030801
  • 收稿日期:2016-08-24 修回日期:2016-12-27 出版日期:2017-04-30 发布日期:2017-04-25
  • 作者简介:

    作者简介:王兴,男,甘肃天水人,硕士生,主要研究方向为农田生态。E-mail:jiaxing0103@163.com

  • 基金资助:
    国家重点研发计划项目(2016YFD0300201)

Assessment of the carbon footprint of rice production in China

Xing WANG1(), Xin ZHAO1, Yuqiao WANG1, Jianfu XUE2, Hailin ZHANG1()   

  1. 1. Key Laboratory of Farming System,Ministry of Agriculture;College of Agronomy and Biotechnology,China Agricultural University,Beijing 100193,China
    2. College of Agriculture,Shanxi Agricultural University,Taigu 030801,China
  • Received:2016-08-24 Revised:2016-12-27 Online:2017-04-30 Published:2017-04-25

摘要:

由温室气体排放引起的全球变暖问题已受到公众的广泛关注。农业生产对温室气体排放有重要影响,水稻是中国主要粮食作物,而稻田又是CH4的主要排放源,因此研究其生产过程的碳足迹对实现农业节能减排具有意义。本研究基于2004-2014年水稻生产相关统计数据,利用碳足迹评价方法核算了中国水稻生产碳足迹及其变化趋势。研究结果表明:①中国水稻生产温室气体排放量、单位面积碳足迹呈逐年增长,而单位产量碳足迹则出现下降趋势,年均增长量分别为21.24亿kgCO2-eq、32.58kgCO2-eq/hm2和-2.82kgCO2-eq/t;②不同省份由于水稻生产条件差异,其碳足迹存在较大差别,如年均单位面积碳足迹最高的江苏达7411.91kgCO2-eq/hm2,最低的黑龙江为4305.87kgCO2-eq/hm2;③年均单位产量碳足迹方面,最高海南为1419.35kgCO2-eq/t,最低吉林为602.12kgCO2-eq/t;④综合比较单位面积与单位产量碳足迹发现,华南双季稻稻作区(广西、广东、福建等),华中双季稻稻作区(江苏、湖南、江西等),其单位碳足迹均高于全国平均水平;⑤水稻生产碳足迹组成中占比最大的部分为稻田CH4排放,达85.05%,农资投入导致的温室气体排放仅占14.95%,其中化肥投入占总碳足迹的10.25%。最后,本文建议通过改进农田管理措施(如间歇性灌溉、改进施肥、合理使用农业投入品),提高水稻机械化生产效率来有效减少水稻温室气体排放。

关键词: 气候变化, 碳排放, 水稻, 生命周期评价法, 中国

Abstract:

Global warming has raised public concern and reducing anthropogenic carbon emissions has become a heated issue. Agriculture plays an important role in greenhouse gas (GHG)emission and offsetting. Rice is one of China’s three major cereal crops and assessing the carbon footprint (CF)of rice production is a vital component of low-carbon goal in China’s agriculture. Data from China Agricultural Statistics from 2004 to 2014 were collected for estimating CF and its components in rice production. The results showed that GHG emissions and CF per area were observed an annual average increase rate of 2.12 billionkgCO2-eq,32.58kgCO2-eq/ha respectively,and annual reduction of CF per yield is -2.82kgCO2-eq/t. Results varied among provinces. For example,the average CF per unit area of rice was the highest in Jiangsu at 7411.91kgCO2-eq/ha and the least in Heilongjiang province at 4305.87kgCO2-eq/ha;average CF per unit of production was highest in Hainan at 2.36 times higher than Jilin Province (the lowest one). In the double cropping rice area of southern China(Guangxi,Guangdong and Fujian)and the double cropping rice area of central China (Jiangsu,Hunan and Jiangxi),the carbon footprints are higher than the national average. CH4 emissions were the largest component of CF,accounting for 85.05% of the total carbon emission following by agricultural inputs for 14.95%,and fertilizer inputs for 10.25% of the agricultural inputs. Strategies to reduce GHGs emissions and improve carbon efficiency in rice production depends on a combination of field operations such as intermittent irrigation,suitable usage of fertilization and other agricultural inputs,and improved mechanical efficiency.

Key words: climate change, carbon emission, rice production, life cycle assessment, China