资源科学 ›› 2017, Vol. 39 ›› Issue (3): 501-512.doi: 10.18402/resci.2017.03.12

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1993-2013年吉林省主粮作物种植布局及其水热资源利用效率评估

宋梦美1(), 安萍莉1(), 江丽1, 蔡璐佳2, 张哲1, 黄灿1   

  1. 1. 中国农业大学土地资源管理系,北京100193
    2. 北京市规划委员会怀柔分局,北京101400
  • 收稿日期:2016-10-24 修回日期:2017-01-12 出版日期:2017-03-20 发布日期:2017-03-20
  • 作者简介:

    作者简介:宋梦美,女,天津人,硕士生,主要研究方向为土地利用规划和可持续利用。E-mail:348971648@qq.com

  • 基金资助:
    2016年度全国农用地质量等级更新调查与监测项目(2016-02-02);国家自然科学基金项目(41271110,41372132);国家科技支撑计划项目(2015BAD06B01)

Cultivation patterns of main grain crops and evaluation of water and heat resource utilization efficiency in Jilin Province from 1993 to 2013

Mengmei SONG1(), Pingli AN1(), Li JIANG1, Lujia CAI2, Zhe ZHANG1, Can HUANG1   

  1. 1. College of Resources and Environmental Sciences,China Agricultural University,Beijing 100193,China
    2. Beijing Municipal Commission of Urban Planning,Huairou Branch,Beijing 101400,China
  • Received:2016-10-24 Revised:2017-01-12 Online:2017-03-20 Published:2017-03-20

摘要:

探究气候变化背景下作物水热资源利用效率变化情况是挖掘粮食高产潜力、实现农业可持续发展的基础,对于优化粮食作物布局以及应对未来气候变化趋势具有重要意义。本文基于1993-2013年吉林省24个气象站点的逐日气象数据和农业统计数据,按照作物积温需求划分出水稻、玉米和大豆的气候种植界限,对因气候变暖而增加的种植区域 (敏感区)内水、热资源有效利用情况进行评估。结果表明:①1993-2013年吉林省积温带明显东扩,水稻和玉米的气候种植界限东扩到敦化-靖宇-临江一线,大豆的气候种植界限东扩到吉林省最东部的长白县;②三种作物敏感区内热量资源利用效率低于非敏感区,但水资源利用效率均高于非敏感区。1993-2013年作物敏感区内水热资源利用效率均呈现出增长趋势,年均增长率显著高于非敏感区;③水稻和玉米敏感区内水热资源产出效率均高于非敏感区,但大豆敏感区内产出效率低于非敏感区。结论:气候变暖对研究区内水热资源效率的提高表现出明显的正效应。从水、热资源优化利用的角度,研究区可适当向东扩展玉米和水稻的种植面积,但要加强农田灌溉系统和灌溉技术,降低水稻的水资源约束情况。同时避免研究区最东部安图、长白等地粮豆的盲目扩种,减少热量资源的约束风险。

关键词: 气候变化, 种植界限, 热量资源, 水资源, 利用效率, 产出效率, 吉林省

Abstract:

Crop water and heat resource utilization efficiency changes are the foundations for increasing grain yield potential,realizing sustainable development of agriculture,and optimizing crop distribution and responses to climate change. Based on meteorological and statistical data in Jilin,China from 1993 to 2013,according to three crop accumulated temperature requirements,we divided climate planting boundaries and estimated water and heat resource utilization efficiency in an area expanded by climate warming. From 1993 to 2013,the accumulated temperature zone had an obvious eastward enlargement,climatic planting limits of rice and maize expanded eastward to the Dunhua-Jingyu-Linjiang line,and climatic planting limits of soybean expanded eastward to Changbai. The heat resource utilization efficiency of three crops in the sensitive area was lower than in the non-sensitive area,but the water resource utilization efficiency was higher than that in the non-sensitive area. Meanwhile,crop water and heat resource utilization efficiency in sensitive areas had a significant increasing trend and the average annual growth rate was higher than in the non-sensitive area. The water and heat resources yield efficiency of rice and maize in the sensitive area was higher than in the non-sensitive area,but the yield efficiency of soybean in the sensitive area was lower than that in the non-sensitive area. The conclusions were that climate warming had a positive effect on water and heat resource efficiency in the study area. The study area could appropriately expand the planting area of maize and rice to the east,and the irrigation system and technology should be strengthened to reduce water resource constraints on rice. Local residents should avoid blindly planting grain and soybean in the most eastern region in order to reduce the risk of heat resource constraints.

Key words: climate change, planting boundary, heat resources, water resources, utilization efficiency, yield efficiency, Jilin Province