资源科学 ›› 2017, Vol. 39 ›› Issue (3): 451-460.doi: 10.18402/resci.2017.03.07

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基于DEA-Tobit模型的中国县域污水处理服务减排效率测评

李鑫(), 孙小霞, 苏时鹏()   

  1. 福建农林大学可持续发展研究所,福州 350002
  • 收稿日期:2016-10-10 修回日期:2017-01-13 出版日期:2017-03-20 发布日期:2017-03-20
  • 作者简介:

    作者简介:李鑫,男,安徽马鞍山人,硕士生,研究方向为资源与环境管理。E-mail:243577192@qq.com

  • 基金资助:
    国家水体污染控制与治理科技重大专项课题(2012ZX0760003);教育部人文社科研究项目(15YJCZH538)

Emissions reduction efficiency of sewage treatment services in county areas in China based on DEA-Tobit Modeling

Xin LI(), Xiaoxia SUN, Shipeng SU()   

  1. Institute of Sustainable Development,Fujian Agriculture and Forestry University,Fuzhou 350002,China
  • Received:2016-10-10 Revised:2017-01-13 Online:2017-03-20 Published:2017-03-20

摘要:

县域污水处理服务快速增长,已成为重要的减排力量,但减排效率差异很大。为了提高县域污水处理服务的减排效率,本文应用数据包络分析法,以年处理能力、年运营费用、年耗电量、雇员人数为投入变量,以污水实际处理量、COD、BOD5、氨氮消减量为产出变量,构建县域污水处理服务减排效率评价模型,以2014 年中国413个县域污水处理设施进行实证分析,并应用Tobit模型分析找出关键影响因素。结果表明:①全国县域污水处理服务减排综合效率平均值为0.637,具有较大的效率提升空间;技术效率为0.756,要素配比急需改善;规模效率为0.835,且73.85%的县域处于规模报酬递增阶段,有必要扩大处理规模;②污水处理服务减排效率的区域差异明显,特征各异;③处理规模、水量负荷率、运营年限、人口密度、经济发展水平对减排效率产生正向影响;④生物膜类工艺减排效率相对较高。因此,根据区域特征分类指导,加强县域污水处理服务运营管理交流,适当扩大处理规模,因地制宜选择污水处理工艺,加强配套管网建设,促进雨污分流,有利于提高污水处理服务的减排效率。

关键词: 县域, 污水处理服务, 减排效率, DEA-Tobit两步法, 影响因素

Abstract:

County sewage treatment services have become an important emissions reduction tool;there is however,a wide disparity in emissions reduction efficiency across county areas. In an effort to examine emissions reduction efficiency across county areas,we used data envelopment analysis to calculate efficiency levels in 413 counties using data from the year 2014. Capital,operating costs,labor and energy consumption were chosen as input indices. The actual treatment of sewage,ammonia,COD and BOD5 reduction were utilized as output indices. An evaluation model of the efficiency of county-level sewage treatment services was established to analyze sewage treatment services and the Tobit model was used to identify key influencing factors. The results show that the combined efficiency of all county areas sewage treatment service is 0.637. The technical efficiency is 0.756 and the scale efficiency is 0.835. We found that 73.85% of counties are increasing their returns to scale. Emission reduction efficiency of sewage treatment service varies among regions. Scale,water load rate,location,population density and economic development levels all have a positive impact on emissions reduction efficiency;biological membrane technology is relatively superior. Many factors are useful in order for some of these sewage treatment facilities to improve their efficiency. Giving guidance according to regional characteristics,facilitating a culture of communication among sewage facilities in county areas,expanding or constructing sewage treatment facilities to appropriate size,utilizing local conditions to choose sewage treatment processes,strengthening the supporting pipe network construction and promoting rain and sewage diversion are all necessary to improve the efficiency of sewage treatment services in China.

Key words: county areas, sewage treatment service, emission reduction efficiency, DEA-Tobit two-step method, influencing factors