资源科学 ›› 2017, Vol. 39 ›› Issue (2): 252-262.doi: 10.18402/resci.2017.02.08

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公元733年河湟谷地耕地分布格局重建

吴致蕾1(), 刘峰贵1,2,3(), 陈琼1, 周强1, 杨登兴1   

  1. 1. 青海师范大学生命与地理科学学院,西宁 810008
    2. 青藏高原环境与资源教育部重点实验室,西宁 810008
    3. 中国科学院地理科学与资源研究所,中国科学院陆地表层格局与模拟重点实验室,北京100101
  • 收稿日期:2016-06-16 修回日期:2016-08-18 出版日期:2017-02-25 发布日期:2017-02-20
  • 作者简介:

    作者简介:吴致蕾,女,四川绵阳人,硕士生,主要从事自然地理综合研究。E-mail:Wuzl32@163.com

  • 基金资助:
    国家自然科学基金项目(41271123,41550004);中国科学院战略性先导科技专项(XDB03030500)

Reconstruction of cropland spatial patterns in 733 AD in the Yellow River-Huangshui River Valley

Zhilei WU1(), Fenggui LIU1,2,3(), Qiong CHEN1, Qiang ZHOU1, Dengxing YANG1   

  1. 1. College of Biologic and Geographic Sciences,Qinghai Normal University,Xining 810008,China
    2. Key Laboratory of Qinghai-Tibet Plateau Resources and Environment,Xining 810008,China
    3. Key Laboratory of Land Surface Pattern and Simulation,Institute of Geographic Sciences and Natural Resources Research,Chinese Academy of Sciences,Beijing 100101,China
  • Received:2016-06-16 Revised:2016-08-18 Online:2017-02-25 Published:2017-02-20

摘要:

典型区域历史时期高分辨率的土地利用/土地覆盖变化重建对研究过去全球环境变化和全球气候变化具有十分重要的意义。公元733年(唐代开元二十一年)是河湟谷地以军事屯田为主的农业发展的峰值期,是其屯田规模最为宏大、效益空前、原始土地覆盖影响最为深刻的时段。本文收集、整理了公元733年河湟谷地历史文献中的耕地数据,运用青藏高原河湟谷地区耕地网格化重建方法,结合历史时期聚落分布的实际状况,对耕地分布进行二次分配,分析并重建了公元733年前后河湟谷地耕地资源规模以及分布格局。结果显示:①公元733年河湟地区耕地开垦以军事屯田为主,共有123屯,估算出屯田总面积为321.13km2;②耕地空间分布主要以聚落为中心,以河流为中心线向外扩散,集中分布在湟水干流区域以及黄河河谷区域中的串珠状盆地内,受海拔高度和山地地形因素的限制,加之当时人口较少,耕地面积有限,全区仅有11.7%的网格有耕地分布;③垦殖强度受到自然条件和生产力水平的双重影响,垦殖率整体偏低,处于农业发展的成长期;全区耕地网格平均垦殖率为9.2%,最高垦殖率仅为18.9%,其中有31.4%的耕地网格垦殖率在9.0%以下,67.6%的耕地网格垦殖率在9.0%~15.0%之间,1.0%的耕地网格垦殖率达到15.0%~20.0%之间;④垦殖强度在行政单元之间具有明显的差异性,鄯州垦殖率较高,平均垦殖率接近13%;廓州垦殖率较低,南部西使地区垦殖率最低。

关键词: 耕地, 空间格局, 重建, 河湟谷地, 公元733年

Abstract:

Reconstruction of high-resolution land use/land cover changes in typical region in the historical periods is of great significance to the study of past global environmental changes and global climate. It was a time node that cropland in the Tang Dynasty was the largest and the most efficient on record. Here,we collected and organized data on cropland area from historical documents during the Tang Dynasty to reconstruct the historical cropland spatial distribution of the Yellow River-Huangshui River valley (YHV)on the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau. We combined this with the actual distribution situation of cropland in the historical period and adjusted the distribution of settlement for a second time to reproduce the spatial distribution pattern of farmland resources in the Tang Dynasty. The results showed that cropland in the YHV in the Tang Dynasty were dominated by military Mita,it was a total of 123 Tun and the total area was 321.13km2. From analysis of cropland distribution,the spread of arable land mainly took the settlement as the center,and took the main river as the center line,and was distributed intensively in the basin of the Huangshui River and Yellow River valley area. Limited by altitude,mountainous terrain factors and a low population meant that only 11.7% of regional grids were cropland. The reclamation index was very low and influenced by natural environment factors and social productivity. It was in the early stages of agricultural development. The average reclamation rate of cropland was 9.2%,and the highest rate was 18.9%. For 31.4% of all grids the reclamation rate was less than 9%;67.6% of all grids had a reclamation index from 9%~15% and only 1% of all grids had a reclamation index which was from 15%~20%. The distribution of reclamation intensity was different among administrative units: the reclamation index was highest in Shanzhou where the average reclamation index was nearly 13%; the reclamation index in Kuozhou was far lower;and the reclamation index was lowest in Xishi region which was located in the south of the YHV.

Key words: cropland, spatial patterns, reconstruction, Yellow River-Huangshui River valley, A.D. 733