资源科学 ›› 2017, Vol. 39 ›› Issue (1): 168-174.doi: 10.18402/resci.2017.01.17

• 资源管理 • 上一篇    

西藏农村居民食物消费结构及膳食营养特征分析

高利伟1, 2, 徐增让1, 成升魁1, 许世卫2, 张宪洲1, 余成群1, 孙维1, 武俊喜1, 曲云鹤1, 马杰3   

  1. 1.中国科学院地理科学与资源研究所,北京100101;
    2. 中国农业科学院农业信息研究所,北京100081;
    3. 河北工程大学,邯郸 056038
  • 收稿日期:2016-02-05 修回日期:2016-11-03 出版日期:2017-01-20 发布日期:2017-01-20
  • 通讯作者: 成升魁, E-mail:chengsk@igsnrr.ac.cn
  • 作者简介:高利伟,男,河北藁城人,博士,主要从事食物生产和消费及其资源环境效应研究。E-mail:Gaoliwei1981@163.com
  • 基金资助:
    国家自然科学基金委重点项目(71233007); 中国科学院战略性先导科技专项(B类)现代高原地表圈层相互作用(XDB03030000); 中国博士后科学基金项目(2016M601195)

Food consumption structure and dietary nutrition of residents in rural Tibet

GAO Liwei1, 2, XU Zengrang1, CHENG Shengkui1, XU Shiwei2, ZHANG Xianzhou1, YU Chengqun1, SUN Wei1, WU Junxi1, QU Yunhe1, MA Jie3   

  1. 1. Institute of Geographic Sciences and Natural Resources Research,Chinese Academy of Sciences,Beijing 100101,China;
    2. Agricultural Information Institute,Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences,Beijing 100081,China;
    3. Hebei University of Engineering,Handan 056038,China
  • Received:2016-02-05 Revised:2016-11-03 Online:2017-01-20 Published:2017-01-20

摘要: 食物消费量调查是分析居民膳食结构和营养特征,判断食物安全形势以及开展营养干预的一项基础性工作。本文选取西藏典型农牧区(拉萨、日喀则、山南和那曲地区),基于2010年农、牧户调研数据,重点分析了西藏农村地区居民食物消费结构特征及营养摄入水平。数据结果显示,研究地区膳食营养结构仍待完善。其中,糌粑、大米、面粉仍然是农、牧居民主要食物消费构成部分。肉类和奶类消费较高,远高于全国平均水平。其它食物消费种类中,如蛋类、猪肉、禽肉、豆制品、水果等需求明显不足,是导致居民膳食结构不均衡的主要原因,这与当地农村居民的饮食文化有关。蔬菜消费在农区消费数量较高,而在牧区消费数量较低,这与市场的通达性有关系。营养摄入分析结果显示,农、牧居民能量和蛋白质的摄入都基本满足了营养学会膳食营养素参考摄入量标准,但在拉萨和山南,农村居民脂肪摄入量仍显不足,这与两个地区居民肉类摄入不足有关。综上所述,虽然西藏农村居民膳食结构有所改善,但是其消费结构仍需完善,食物消费仍以本地消费为主,未来在加强西藏农村居民营养干预中,应该增加市场肉蛋奶等多种类食物供应量,扩大西藏农村地区食物的可达性,尤其是牧区,充分挖掘市场在当地农村居民膳食结构改善中所发挥的作用。本研究将为西藏农村地区居民膳食营养干预政策的制定和实施提供参考依据。

关键词: 膳食营养, 食物, 食物消费结构, 食物消费结构, 西藏农村

Abstract: Food consumption surveys are fundamental to the analysis of food security,the characteristics of diet and nutrient intake,and developing nutrition interventions. Based on household survey data,four typical areas (Lhasa,Xigaze,Shannan and Nagqu)were chosen to analyze food consumption characteristics and the nutritional status of rural residents in Tibet,China. The results showed that the dietary structure remains irrational. Barley (Zanba),rice and wheat flour comprised major food consumption in all four areas,and meat and milk consumption is higher than the national level. Foods such as eggs,pork,poultry,soy products and fruits remain insufficient and unbalanced and may be related to local food culture. Vegetable consumption is higher in agricultural areas than pastoral areas. Energy and protein intake in the four study areas basically meets the dietary reference intakes of the DRI standard,but for fat intake,Lhasa and Shannan do not (related to a deficiency in meat intake). In conclusion,although Tibetan rural residents have improved their dietary structure,the dietary structure remains irrational and local foods still dominate the diet. There is an urgent need to strengthen the nutritional intervention of rural Tibetan residents,and increasing the supply of meat,eggs and milk. By expanding food accessibility in rural areas in Tibet,especially in pasture areas,we can excavate the role of markets in the improvement of the dietary structure of rural residents in Tibet.

Key words: diet nutrition, food, food consumption, food consumption structure, rural Tibet