资源科学 ›› 2017, Vol. 39 ›› Issue (1): 147-156.doi: 10.18402/resci.2017.01.15

• 气候资源 • 上一篇    下一篇

松花江流域最大冻土深度的时空分布及对气温变化的响应

李佳1, 2, 周祖昊2, 王浩2, 刘佳嘉2   

  1. 1. 东华大学环境科学与工程学院,上海 201620;
    2. 中国水利水电科学研究院流域水循环模拟与调控国家重点实验室,北京 100038
  • 收稿日期:2016-08-02 修回日期:2016-11-09 出版日期:2017-01-20 发布日期:2017-01-20
  • 作者简介:李佳,女,山西晋城人,博士,主要从事寒区水循环模拟及对气候响应研究。E-mail:sxjclijia@163.com
  • 基金资助:
    国家水体污染控制与治理科技重大专项课题(2008ZX07207-006,2012ZX07201-006); 国家自然科学基金项目(51179203)

The spatial-temporal distribution of maximum depth of frozen soil and its response to temperature change in the Songhuajiang River Basin

LI Jia1, 2, ZHOU Zuhao2, WANG Hao2, Liu Jiajia2   

  1. 1. Environmental Science and Engineering Department,Donghua University,Shanghai 201620,China;
    2. State Key Laboratory of Simulation and Regulation of Water Cycle in River Basin,China Institute of Water Resources and Hydropower Research (IWHR),Beijing 100038,China
  • Received:2016-08-02 Revised:2016-11-09 Online:2017-01-20 Published:2017-01-20

摘要: 利用松花江流域内及周边的56个气象站点资料,采用气候统计学分析方法,对1960-2004年松花江流域最大冻土深度的时空变化及其与气温的关系进行了分析。结果表明:流域年最大冻土深度分布整体呈由南向北增加的趋势。月最大冻土深度有明显的季节变化,最大值多出现在3月,且高纬度地区最大冻土深度均大于低纬度地区。1960-2004年松花江流域年最大冻土深度呈明显下降趋势,变化率为-8.25 cm/10a,与冻土同期的年均气温呈显著升高趋势,变化率为0.41℃/10a。年最大冻土深度在1980s中期发生突变,突变年前后最大冻土深度减小了35 cm。此外,年最大冻土深度和年均气温在时间和空间尺度上均呈显著负相关,高纬度地区最大冻土深度比低纬度地区对气候变暖的响应滞后。

关键词: 变化趋势, 松花江流域, 突变, 最大冻土深度

Abstract: In the Songhuajiang River Basin seasonal frozen soil is extensively distributed. Frozen soil is defined as a soil temperature of 0 °C or below 0 °C where the soil freezes causing changes in soil characteristics,soil structure and hydrological processes. Based on data from 56 meteorological stations in the Songhuajiang River Basin and surrounding areas,the temporal and spatial distribution of the maximum depth of frozen soil in the Songhuajiang River Basin from 1960 to 2004 and its relationship with air temperature were analyzed using climate statistical analysis methods. We found that the annual maximum depth of frozen soil north of the region is higher than that in the south. The monthly maximum depth of frozen soil in the basin shows seasonal variation,with the maximum occurring in March. At the same time,the maximum depth of frozen soil in high latitude area was higher than in a low latitude area. There was a distinct decrease from 1960 to 2004 across the basin,with regression coefficients of -8.25 cm per year,and the annual mean air temperature of the frozen period has increased with variation of 0.41°C per decade. There was an abrupt change of the maximum depth of frozen soil in mid 1980s,and the maximum depth of frozen soil was reduced by 35 cm. This study also found that the maximum depth of frozen soil and annual mean temperature are negatively correlated at spatial and temporal scales and the response of the maximum depth of frozen soil at high latitudes to climate warming is slower at lower latitudes.

Key words: abrupt change, changing trend, maximum depth of frozen soil, Songhuajiang River Basin