资源科学 ›› 2017, Vol. 39 ›› Issue (1): 11-19.doi: 10.18402/resci.2017.01.02

• 专栏:中国国家公园体制试点研究 • 上一篇    下一篇

国家公园管理机构建设的制度逻辑与模式选择研究

张海霞1, 钟林生2   

  1. 1. 浙江工商大学旅游与城乡规划学院,杭州310018;
    2. 中国科学院地理科学与资源研究所,北京100101
  • 收稿日期:2015-10-25 修回日期:2016-08-15 出版日期:2017-01-20 发布日期:2017-01-20
  • 作者简介:张海霞,女,山东鱼台人,副教授,硕士生导师,研究方向为国家公园与旅游规制。E-mail:avivachang@126.com
  • 基金资助:
    浙江省社科规划课题重点项目(15NDJC018Z); 国家自然科学基金(41501165,41671527); 浙江省发展和改革委员会项目(钱江源国家公园体制试点方案与总体规划编制)

Institutional logic and model selection in the construction of national parks administration

ZHANG Haixia1, ZHONG Linsheng2   

  1. 1. School of Tourism and Urban-rural Planning,Zhejiang Gongshang University,Hangzhou 310018,China;
    2. Institute of Geographic Sciences and Natural Resources Research,Chinese Academy of Sciences,Beijing 100101,China
  • Received:2015-10-25 Revised:2016-08-15 Online:2017-01-20 Published:2017-01-20

摘要: 国家公园体制是自然资源管理制度的重要类型。十八届三中全会之后,国家公园成为中国缓解自然保护地交叉重叠管理,推行生态政治、建设生态文明的空间工具,国家公园的机构设置与组织架构问题研究提上日程。对国家公园管理机构进行规范分析,探讨机构建设的制度逻辑与基本模式,并以钱江源国家公园体制试点区为例展开实证研究。分析发现:国家公园管理组织架设的合理性、科学性可从治理与管理质量两个目标维度进行诊断,“善治”理论可为纵向治理质量的提升提供依据,据此从权力分配、权力协调到权力实现的制度逻辑配置管理机构,促进机构正义;“管理有效性”理论可为内部横向管理质量的提高提供工具,根据目标管理与保障的制度逻辑设置专业化管理部门,增强机构组织效能;国家公园管理组织结构有科层集权、扁平分权、协同均权三个典型组织模式;中国国家公园管理机构的架设应依法明确国家公园管理的强制秩序,建立由权威专业化国家公园管理机构统辖的弹性机构组织模式。基于善治与有效管理框架的国家公园管理机构建设逻辑探索,对于中国国家公园体制建设具有重要现实意义。

关键词: 管理机构, 国家公园, 钱江源国家公园体制试点区, 组织结构

Abstract: National parks play important roles in the natural resource management system of a country. After the Third Plenary Session of the 18th Communist Party of China,National parks become a new spatial tool to handle overlapping administration in natural protection,promote eco-political processes and construct an eco-civilization society. Thus,the institutions and divisional structures of national parks urgently need to be explored. We summarized the institutional logic and main organizational models for national park administrations(NPAs)globally from a normative prospective,and looked at this empirically for Qianjiangyuan National Park System Pilot Area(QNP),in Zhejiang,China. The rationality of NPA allocation can be diagnosed from governance and management dimensions. Theory of Good Governance,which provides theoretical support for the improvement of vertical governance and administrative justice,can organize NPA managerial divisions according to attribute differences across allocation rights,coordination and realization. Theory of Effective Management can be used as an internal tool for national parks to advance management quality through constructing related professional and supportive divisions to strengthen organizational effectiveness. The relationships for management-governance in NPAs can be concluded into three types:Centralized Bureaucratic Model,Decentralized Flat Model and Balanced Cooperation Model. It is rational for QNP to select a centralized model with comprehensive national agency as top responsible body,while more suitable to the flat model under the leadership of professional national agencies. China needs to construct a professional,powerful and resilient organizational model of national parks under coercive orders. Explorations of institutional logic for NPAs based on Theory of Good Governance and Theory of Effective Management will be of great importance in the construction of a national park system in China.

Key words: administration, national park, organizational structure, Qianjianguan National Park System Pilot Area