资源科学 ›› 2016, Vol. 38 ›› Issue (11): 2192-2200.doi: 10.18402/resci.2016.11.17

• • 上一篇    

荒野思想与美国国家公园的荒野管理——以约瑟米蒂荒野为例

王辉1,3(), 刘小宇2, 王亮3, 柯丽娜1   

  1. 1. 辽宁师范大学城市与环境学院,大连 116029
    2. 辽宁师范大学历史文化旅游学院,大连 116081
    3. 辽宁师范大学海洋经济可持续发展中心,大连 116029
  • 收稿日期:2016-07-27 修回日期:2016-09-27 出版日期:2016-11-16 发布日期:2016-11-16
  • 作者简介:

    作者简介:王辉,女(满族),辽宁葫芦岛人,博士,教授,研究方向为旅游地理。E-mail:wanghuiouki@126.com

  • 基金资助:
    国家自然科学基金(41301160)国家旅游局青年旅游专家资助项目(TYETP201412)教育部人文社科重点研究基地项目(15

Wilderness mind and wilderness management in Yosemite National Park

WANG Hui1,3(), LIU Xiaoyu2, WANG Liang3, KE Lina1   

  1. 1. College of Urban and Environmental Science,Liaoning Normal University,Dalian 116029,China
    2.College of Historical and Cultural Tourism,Liaoning Normal University,Dalian 116081,China
    3. Center for Studies of Marine Economy and Sustainable Development Liaoning Normal University,Dalian 116029, China
  • Received:2016-07-27 Revised:2016-09-27 Online:2016-11-16 Published:2016-11-16

摘要:

荒野区域是濒临灭绝动植物的栖息地,是自然变化的历史记录者,是人类与自然的契合点。本文从时间和事件两个维度出发,梳理荒野思想的发展进程和美国国家公园的荒野管理,以园内土地94%是荒野的美国约瑟米蒂国家公园为例,剖析约瑟米蒂荒野管理的两大重要因素:公园管理和游客参与。国家公园管理局的介入与支持,实现了约瑟米蒂荒野的商业服务、设备使用、游径设置和承载力监管;游客参与包括国家公园荒野管理计划制定、遵守荒野管理规定和支持荒野管理创新等。事实证明,美国国家公园管理局参与荒地管理,既保护了荒野,又满足了游客的游憩和教育,其模式值得研究、借鉴与推广。

关键词: 荒野思想, 荒野利用与管理, 约瑟米蒂荒野, 美国国家公园

Abstract:

Wilderness areas are habitat for animals and plants on the verge of extinction and a conjunction point between human and nature. Here,we consider the two dimensions of time and events,combining the developmental process of wilderness ideology and wilderness management of National Parks. Taking Yosemite Wilderness as an example,94% of the wilderness in Yosemite National Park,we analyze two important factors of management:park management and visitor participation. The involvement and support of the National Park Service include Yosemite wilderness commercial services,stock use,trail setting,and capacity control in wilderness. Visitor involvement in wilderness management includes making plans,complying with provisions of wilderness management and supporting wilderness management innovation. It turns out that management of the US National Park Service for wilderness is successful and not only meets tourist education and recreation needs,but also protects wilderness. Wilderness is often said to represent a baseline:a landscape with a mosaic of ecosystems that function with as little influence from human beings as any on earth. For human nature preserves civilization beyond its experience is worth the institutional strengthening of our national parks and the implementation of references. Most Americans,whether urban or rural,also ascribed high importance to six additional benefits including the scenic beauty of wild landscapes,the knowledge that wilderness is being protected (existence value),the choice to visit wilderness at some future time (option value),the opportunity for wilderness recreation experiences,preserving nature for scientific study,and spiritual inspiration. The experience of National Park Service management of wilderness is worth using as a reference in China.

Key words: wilderness mind, use and management of wilderness, Yosemite, USA National Parks