资源科学 ›› 2016, Vol. 38 ›› Issue (11): 2168-2180.doi: 10.18402/resci.2016.11.15

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长江三角洲居民乡村旅游空间机会差异及影响机制

黄泰1,2, 席建超2(), 葛全胜2   

  1. 1. 苏州大学旅游系,苏州 215123
    2. 中国科学院地理科学与资源研究所,北京 100101
  • 收稿日期:2016-05-20 修回日期:2016-09-22 出版日期:2016-11-16 发布日期:2016-11-16
  • 作者简介:

    作者简介:黄泰,男,江苏丰县人,博士后,副教授,硕士生导师,主要研究方向为旅游规划。E-mail:huangtai_fx@163.comemail

  • 基金资助:
    国家旅游局科研立项重点项目(16TAAK004)国家旅游局旅游业青年专家培养计划项目(TYETP201527)中国博士后科学基金项目(2016M591241)

Spatial differences and mechanisms of rural tourism opportunities for residents in the Yangtze River Delta

HUANG Tai1,2, XI Jianchao2(), GE Quansheng2   

  1. 1. Department of Tourism Management,Soochow University,Suzhou 215123,China
    2. Institute of Geographic Sciences and Natural Resources Research,Chinese Academy of Sciences,Beijing 100101,China
  • Received:2016-05-20 Revised:2016-09-22 Online:2016-11-16 Published:2016-11-16

摘要:

旅游机会公平是新近国际旅游学术本位反思及社会伦理责任担当关注的热点。本文立足旅游供需系统视角,利用GIS和改进的人口加权距离模型研究了中国长江三角洲居民乡村旅游的空间差异格局及影响机制。研究发现:① 长江三角洲居民乡村旅游的空间机会格局基本形成以上海为中心的近似半圆环形等级圈,具有明显的“核心-边缘”衰减变化特征;② 城镇与农村人口之间乡村旅游空间机会差异格局具有整体离散、外围显著的特征,差异程度比率范围大约在0.563 55~1.169 28之间,出现了城镇人口出游机会优于农村人口的资源配置“城乡错位”现象,说明乡村旅游点开发向城市集聚的市场导向特征明显;③ 居民乡村旅游的总体机会与城镇化水平呈线性正相关,而城镇与农村居民的空间机会差异程度与城镇化水平呈正态分布相关,即城镇化水平很低和很高城市的城乡差异小,而城镇化水平中等城市的城乡差异大;④ 乡村旅游空间机会的等级差异分布普遍符合幂次法则,这种相对成熟的等级发育意味着旅游机会公平与市场效率矛盾长存,发挥制度优势、建立行政干预长效机制是推进旅游空间机会公平的必要手段;⑤ 乡村旅游空间机会与居民收入水平之间存在中高程度的显著相关性,既说明了本文模型实证结论的合理性,也证实二者存在本质差异,只有将二者结合才能更深入具体地揭示旅游机会差异的问题本质及解决路径;⑥ 经济建设为中心的战略方针指导下政府权力与企业资本结成相对稳定的利益增长联盟,以及社会福利领域政府干预调控的相对不足,是形成长江三角洲居民乡村旅游空间机会差异格局的深层原因。

关键词: 乡村旅游, 空间机会差异, 影响机制, 长江三角洲居民

Abstract:

Tourism fairness is a focus of academic standards and responsibility reflection in current international tourism research. Here,the spatial differences of residents’ opportunities to rural tourism sites in the Yangtze River Delta and mechanism are studied using GIS and the improved population-weighted distance from the perspective of tourism supply and demand. We find a travel opportunity spatial pattern of a semicircular ring belt with Shanghai as the center,which changes with a clear core-periphery attenuation law. The spatial differentiation pattern of the travel opportunity difference between urban and rural populations is discrete and peripherally significant,and the ratio of the difference degree is 0.56~1.17. This indicates an urban and rural dislocation phenomenon of rural tourism site allocation and that the development of rural tourism sites is becoming more urban-agglomerate and market-oriented. The overall opportunity of rural tourism has a linear positive correlation with the level of urbanization,but the correlation between the degree of spatial opportunity differences for urban and rural populations and the level of urbanization shows a Gaussian normal distribution. The difference distributions of rural tourism opportunity of the total population,urban population and rural population are all generally in accordance with the Power law,and this relatively mature development of grade order means the contradiction between travel opportunity fair and market efficiency will exist in the long term. There is a correlation between rural tourism opportunity and income level of residents in the Yangtze River Delta,which indicates that there are essential differences between them and the combination of them will help to understand differences in rural tourism opportunities. Under the guidance of the economic construction as the center of strategic policy,the formation of a relatively stable growth alliance of government power and enterprise capital and the lack of government intervention in the field of welfare are the profound reasons that cause the spatial differentiation pattern of residents’ opportunity to travel to rural tourism sites in the Yangtze River Delta.

Key words: rural tourism, travel location difference, influence mechanism, residents in the Yangtze River Delta