资源科学 ›› 2016, Vol. 38 ›› Issue (10): 1893-1900.doi: 10.18402/resci.2016.10.07

• 水资源 • 上一篇    下一篇

水权赋权依据与水权分类

孙媛媛1, 2, 3, 贾绍凤1, 2   

  1. 1.中国科学院陆地水循环及地表过程重点实验室,北京 100101;
    2.中国科学院地理科学与资源研究所,北京 100101;
    3.中国科学院大学,北京 100049
  • 收稿日期:2015-07-24 修回日期:2016-08-05 出版日期:2016-10-25 发布日期:2016-10-25
  • 通讯作者: 贾绍凤,E-mail:jiasf@igsnrr.ac.cn
  • 作者简介:孙媛媛,女,山东淄博市人,博士生,主要研究方向为水资源管理。E-mail:sunyuanyuan829@163.com
  • 基金资助:
    国家自然科学基金(41471463); 能源基金会(G-151213-9)

Basis of water rights empowerment and classification of water rights

SUN Yuanyuan1, 2, 3, JIA Shaofeng1, 2   

  1. 1. Key Lab. of Water Cycle &
    Related Land Surface Processes,Chinese Academy of Sciences,Beijing100101,China;
    2. Institute of Geographic Sciences and Natural Resources Research,Chinese Academy of Sciences,Beijing 100101,China;
    3. University of Chinese Academy of Sciences,Beijing 100049,China
  • Received:2015-07-24 Revised:2016-08-05 Online:2016-10-25 Published:2016-10-25

摘要: 本文首先对国内外现存的水权制度进行分析,探讨了现有的水权赋权依据与水权分类现状。然后对水权赋权的相关概念进行了阐述,包括水权的内涵、水权赋权的含义以及对水资源进行赋权的必要性。在此基础上,结合水权赋权的历史事实,本文详细探讨了水权赋权的理论依据,包括赋权的人类伦理依据以及具体的赋权依据。其中,人类伦理依据是水权赋权必须遵守的最根本的依据,要划分出基本的水权类型,还需要将理论依据转化为可操作的、具体的赋权依据。基于确定的水权赋权依据,突破了将水权简单地划分为河岸权、优先权等类型的认识,将水权更为全面地划分为五种基本类型,即河岸权、优先占用权、轮水权、需求权重水权以及生态水权,并分析了不同水权类型各自的特点。通过对水权赋权的依据和水权的基本分类进行深入研究,可以为水权制度的建立和改革提供理论依据。

关键词: 赋权, 水权, 水权分类, 特点, 依据

Abstract: We analyze the existing water right systems in China and abroad and discuss the present basis of water rights empowerment and classification status. We then state the related concepts regarding water rights empowerment. These concepts include the connotation of water rights,the meaning of water rights empowerment and the necessity of water rights empowerment. On this basis,combined with historical facts of water rights empowerment,we discuss the theoretical basis of water rights empowerment in detail,including the human ethical basis and the practical specific basis of water rights empowerment. Among them,the human ethical basis was the fundamental basis that the water rights empowerment must abide with. In addition,it needed to transfer the ethical basis to operable and specific empowerment basis in order to divide the basic types of water rights. Based on the determined water rights empowerment basis,it broke through the understanding that simply divided water rights into riparian right,priority right and so on. Water rights are comprehensively divided into five basic types,namely the riparian right,priority right,rotation water right,demand weighting water right and ecological water right. The features of different water rights types are compared. Through the clarification of the basis of water rights empowerment and the rational classification of water rights,we have attempted to provide a theoretical basis for the reform of water rights institution.

Key words: basis, feature, water right classification, water rights, water rights empowerment