资源科学 ›› 2016, Vol. 38 ›› Issue (9): 1681-1691.doi: 10.18402/resci.2016.09.06

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1961-2011年中国农田磷收支及磷使用效率研究

伦飞1,2(), 刘俊国3(), 张丹4   

  1. 1. 中国农业大学资源与环境学院,北京 100193
    2. 中国土地政策与法律研究中心,北京 100193
    3. 南方科技大学环境学院,深圳 518055
    4.中国科学院地理科学与资源研究所,北京 100101
  • 收稿日期:2016-04-07 修回日期:2016-07-20 出版日期:2016-09-25 发布日期:2016-09-22
  • 作者简介:

    作者简介:伦飞,男,山东寿光人,讲师,研究方向为土地资源管理、农田物质循环。E-mail:rucallen_2008@hotmail.com

  • 基金资助:
    北京市自然科学基金(8151002);国家自然科学基金(41571022,91325302,91425303)

Trends in cropland P balance and P use efficiency in China from 1961 to 2011

LUN Fei1,2(), LIU Junguo3(), ZHANG Dan4   

  1. 1. College of Resources and Environment Sciences,China Agricultural University,Beijing 100193,China
    2. Center of Land Policy and Law,Beijing 100193,China
    3. School of Environmental Science and Engineering,South University of Science and Technology of China,Shenzhen 518055,China
    4. Institute of Geographic Sciences and Natural Resources Research,Chinese Academy of Sciences,Beijing 100101,China
  • Received:2016-04-07 Revised:2016-07-20 Online:2016-09-25 Published:2016-09-22

摘要:

增加粮食产量、提高磷肥使用效率以及减少环境面源污染一直是中国各界关注的焦点。本文基于物质流分析的方法,通过构建动态模型,科学评估了1961-2011年中国农田系统磷收支;探讨了中国农田磷投入与农作物产量、磷使用效率之间的关系;对比分析了不同时期不同农作物农田磷收支变化情况。研究表明,1961-2011年,中国农田磷投入量增加了7.93倍,磷输出量增加了2.89倍,磷循环利用量增加了2.65倍;磷投入的构成由以人畜粪便为主(76.45%),转变为以磷肥为主(70.54%);中国农田系统磷使用效率呈下降趋势,由20世纪60年代的0.6左右下降到现在的0.3左右;农作物产量呈正相关,而磷使用效率与农田磷投入呈负相关。总的来看,中国农田系统磷收支经历先损失后积累的过程,1971年为转折点,到2011年时,中国农田土壤累积磷积累量达到71.18 Mt P。本文的研究为合理确定农田磷投入量,提高农田磷使用效率,减缓农田土壤磷积累,减轻农村面源污染等问题提供了科学依据。

关键词: 磷收支, 磷使用效率, 农田, 中国

Abstract:

How to increase crop yield,increase phosphorus use efficiency and reduce environmental pollution are major issues for China. Based on the principle of material flows we established the dynamic models for cropland P balance and then estimated cropland P balance and P use efficiency in China from 1961 to 2011. We explored the relationships among cropland P inputs,crop yield and cropland P use efficiency and then In addition compared cropland P balance for different crops in two different years. The results indicated that cropland P inputs and outputs increased 7.93 times and 2.89 times over the period,respectively,and the amount of P return back to croplands also increased about 2.65 times. The primary cropland P inputs changed from livestock and human excreta (accounting for 76.45% of the total cropland P inputs in 1961)to P-fertilizer (accounting for 70.54% of total cropland P input in 2011). Cropland soil P use efficiency decreased from 0.6 in the 1960s to 0.3 at present. Cropland soil P balance had a positive relationship with cropland soil P inputs,while soil P use efficiency followed the opposite trend. Cropland soil P balance turned from ‘soil P deficits’ in 1960s to ‘soil P surplus’ after 1970,and croplands suffered serious soil P surplus since the 1990s. Up to 2011,the total cumulative cropland P accumulation amounted to 71.89 Mt P. These findings will help solve serious soil P accumulation and water eutrophication in rural areas of China,and improve crop production and P use efficiency.

Key words: soil P balance, P use efficiency, cropland, China