资源科学 ›› 2016, Vol. 38 ›› Issue (9): 1663-1671.doi: 10.18402/resci.2016.09.04

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黑色旅游者行为意向差异研究——以侵华日军南京大屠杀遇难同胞纪念馆为例

郑春晖1,2(), 张捷1,2(), 钱莉莉1,2, 张宏磊1,2, 年四锋1,2   

  1. 1. 南京大学国土资源与旅游学系,南京 210023
    2. 南京大学旅游研究所,南京 210023
  • 收稿日期:2016-03-20 修回日期:2016-04-05 出版日期:2016-09-25 发布日期:2016-09-22
  • 作者简介:

    作者简介:郑春晖,女,广西桂林人,博士生,讲师,主要研究领域为遗产旅游、旅游地理与旅游规划。E-mail:chunhui863@163.com

  • 基金资助:
    国家自然科学基金项目(41171121);教育部人文社科青年基金项目(13YJC790193)

Research on the differentiation of dark tourists’ behavioral intention: a case study of the Memorial of the Victims of the Nanjing Massacre

ZHENG Chunhui1,2(), ZHANG Jie1,2(), QIAN Lili1,2, ZHANG Honglei1,2, NIAN Sifeng1,2   

  1. 1. Department of Land Resource and Tourism Sciences,Nanjing University,Nanjing 210023,China
    2. Institute of Tourism,Nanjing University,Nanjing 210023,China
  • Received:2016-03-20 Revised:2016-04-05 Online:2016-09-25 Published:2016-09-22

摘要:

黑色旅游地承载着苦难的记忆,不同旅游者可能表现出截然不同的心理和行为。本文通过调查南京大屠杀遇难同胞纪念馆的参观者,试图以重游意愿和推荐意愿为变量对黑色旅游者进行细分,以有针对性地强化黑色旅游在记忆传承和增强国家认同方面的作用。聚类分析得到行为意愿迥异的三类黑色旅游者:态度忠诚型、低重游低推荐型、态度和行为忠诚型。为进一步识别三类黑色旅游者在旅游限制和动机上的差异,结合网络文本分析构建了黑色旅游限制和动机量表,因子分析提取出7个限制因子:“伤痛记忆”、“恐惧和压抑”、“禁忌和文化观”、“缺乏兴趣”、“人际限制”、“时间/距离/信息”和“竞争旅游地”;3个动机因子:“责任与教育”、“社会因素”和“好奇和思考生死”。方差分析显示:旅游动机越强,旅游限制越弱,参观者选择重游和推荐意愿越强,反之亦然。研究发现为黑色旅游目的地管理提供了参考。

关键词: 黑色旅游, 行为意向, 旅游限制, 旅游动机, 聚类分析, 因子分析, 单因素方差分析, 南京大屠杀

Abstract:

Dark tourism sites,also known as difficult heritage,may arouse traumatic memories of a difficult past and result in varied psychology and behaviour of dark tourists. By focusing on the Memorial of the Victims of the Nanjing Massacre,China,which is one of the most iconic dark tourism sites worthy of academic attention,this study aims to segment dark tourists using the factors of intention to revisit and intention to recommend. The results yield three types of dark tourists:‘attitudinal loyal tourists’;‘tourists with low intention to recommend and revisit’; and ‘behavioural and attitudinal loyal tourists’. As dark tourism revolves around death,people might be affected heavily by assorted emotional and social-cultural factors. To identify the difference between these three kinds of dark tourists,a scale to measure dark tourism constraints and motivation has been developed. The exploratory factor analysis reveals that visitors to massacre sites might experience the following seven types of constraints:traumatic memory,emotions of fear and depression,taboos and cultural ideas,disinterest,interpersonal constraints,time/distance/information and competing attractions. The constraints revealed by this study may provide a foundation for research into the seven constraint dimensions that were revealed. Three main motives were also identified:obligation and education,social reasons,and curiosity and contemplating life and death. Among these three motivations,obligation and education emerged as the foremost motivations. The results demonstrate that dark tourists with higher motivation and lower constraints are more likely to revisit and recommend these sites. Given the importance of younger generations in the perpetuation of the memory of the traumatic past,the findings will help to broaden theory and provide suggestions for the management of massacre sites.

Key words: dark tourism, behavioural intention, constraints, motivation, cluster analysis, factor analysis, One-way ANOVA, Nanjing Massacre