资源科学 ›› 2016, Vol. 38 ›› Issue (9): 1635-1642.doi: 10.18402/resci.2016.09.01

• •    下一篇

尺度、变化和恢复力:社区旅游规划的视角

Alan August Lew2(), 何景明2, 何景明2, 高彬2   

  1. 1. 北亚利桑那大学地理、规划与休闲系, 美国亚利桑那 弗拉格斯塔夫86011-5016
    2. 浙江工业大学经贸管理学院,杭州 310023
  • 收稿日期:2016-01-10 修回日期:2016-04-05 出版日期:2016-09-25 发布日期:2016-09-22
  • 作者简介:

    作者简介:Alan August Lew,男,美国人,博士,教授,研究方向为旅游地理与旅游规划。E-mail:alan.lew@nau.edu

  • 基金资助:
    国家自然科学基金项目(41401151)

Scale,change and resilience in community tourism planning

Alan August Lew1(), HE Jingming1   

  1. 1. Northern Arizona University,Flagstaff Arizona 86011-5016,USA
    2. School of Economics and Management,Zhejiang University of Technology,Hangzhou 310023,China
  • Received:2016-01-10 Revised:2016-04-05 Online:2016-09-25 Published:2016-09-22

摘要:

近年来,恢复力规划逐渐作为可持续发展的一种替代范式,为快速变化中的社区发展和社会-生态转型提供了新的视角。社区恢复力这个新兴概念在很多学科已有所涉猎,旅游学者也从某种程度上逐渐接受这一理念。但大多数关于社区恢复力的研究主要关注的是重大灾难和危机等突发事件,鲜有对渐变事件和过程进行研究。因此,建立一个包含缓慢变量的新框架将进一步拓展恢复力相关研究。论文中建立的旅游恢复力模型包含了从慢到快的变化速率以及从业主到社区旅游收益的不同尺度,并得出一个2×2矩阵,该矩阵中呈现了4种相互区别的恢复力主题、方法和测度,涵盖了从企业家维护日常管理的需求到社区灾难的应急、响应和恢复等诸多方面。作者进而通过对台湾乡村旅游的研究,修订了SCR模型,建立了应对扰动和变化的社区尺度、变化和恢复力系统及子系统推广模型。新的模型改变尺度、变化和恢复力的通用模型,具有等级体系,包含一个系统和至少一个子系统,并以阈值线来界定区分变化程度。另外,对SCR模型的四个象限进行了正式的命名,即管理、资源、规划、治理恢复力/可持续性。

关键词: 旅游规划, 恢复力规划, 可持续发展, 社区恢复力, 复杂自适应性系统, 可持续旅游, 社会-生态恢复力

Abstract:

Resilience planning has emerged in recent years as an alternative to the sustainable development paradigm to provide new perspectives on community development and socio-ecological adjustments to a rapidly changing world. Tourism scholars have been somewhat slow to adopt the recent conceptual ideas related to community resilience that have been published in other disciplinary areas, though this situation is also changing rapidly.While most resilience research focusses on major disasters and crises, new frameworks that encompass slow change variables provide a more comprehensive view on resilience. A model for tourism resilience considers the rate of change (transitioning from slow to fast), and the scale of tourism interest (scaling from that of the entrepreneur to those that are community-wide). The resulting 2*2 matrix presents four context with distinct resilience issues, methodologies and measurements, ranging from entrepreneurs managing daily maintenance needs, to community disaster readiness, response and recovery. The SCR model has been revised based on the field investigation and study of rural tourism in Taiwan. And the SCR model generalizes the Scale, Change and Resilience model to any context in which there is a hierarchy containing a system and at least one subsystem. The threshold dividing the system from the subsystem is a major shift in a baseline variable that is used to distinguish between the system and the subsystem. Furthermore, the SCR model gives formal names to each of the four generalized cells: Management Resilience & Sustainability, Resource Resilience & Sustainability, Planning Resilience & Sustainability, Governance Resilience & Sustainability.

Key words: tourism planning, resilience planning, sustainable development, community resilience, complex adaptive systems, sustainable tourism, socio-ecological resilience