资源科学 ›› 2016, Vol. 38 ›› Issue (8): 1621-1633.doi: 10.18402/resci.2016.08.19

• • 上一篇    

生态移民户与非移民户的生计对比——以遗产旅游地武陵源为例

王凯1,2(), 李志苗1, 易静1   

  1. 1. 湖南师范大学旅游学院,长沙410081
    2. 中国科学院地理科学与资源研究所,北京 100101
  • 收稿日期:2015-11-26 修回日期:2016-03-29 出版日期:2016-08-25 发布日期:2016-08-25
  • 作者简介:

    作者简介:王凯,男,湖南新宁人,教授,硕士生导师,主要从事低碳经济、旅游发展与管理等研究。E-mail:kingviry@163.com

  • 基金资助:
    湖南省教育厅科学研究重点项目(14A088);国家自然科学基金项目(71471057)

Contrasting the livelihoods of immigrants and non-immigrants in the Wulingyuan world heritage area

WANG Kai1,2(), LI Zhimiao1, YI Jing1   

  1. 1. Tourism College of Hunan Normal University,Changsha 410081,China
    2. Institute of Geographic Sciences and Natural Resources Research,Chinese Academy of Sciences,Beijing 100101,China
  • Received:2015-11-26 Revised:2016-03-29 Online:2016-08-25 Published:2016-08-25

摘要:

针对生态移民给搬迁农户所带来的生计影响,以遗产旅游地武陵源为例构建农户参与旅游业的生计可持续指标体系,对比分析武陵源移民户与非移民户旅游依赖生计资本和生计策略的差异;通过构建多元Logit模型探讨移民户和非移民户生计资本各因素对旅游依赖生计策略的影响。研究结果显示:①生态移民背景下移民户发展旅游更具生计资本上的优势,移民户和非移民户的人力资本均值分别为0.601和0.577;物质资本均值分别为0.488和0.442;金融资本均值分别为0.258和0.231;社会资本均值分别为0.469和0.393;②生态移民促使农户的生计策略更加多样化,但移民户的后期保障扶持措施不够深入,因而政府应加大对非移民户资金、技术等方面的支持,促使其就业多样化,加强风险抵御能力;针对移民户,政府应完善生态移民安置政策,监督移民补贴的发放和移民政策的执行;③人力资本和金融资本对移民户和非移民户生计策略的选择有显著影响,社会资本越多的移民户越倾向于选择旅游专营型生计策略,物质资本越多的非移民户越倾向于选择生计多样型生计策略,其中金融资本对农户旅游依赖生计策略影响最为显著,但其持有量目前最低,因此要使农户实现效用最大化,首要任务是完善农户援助与信贷制度,提高其金融资本。

关键词: 遗产旅游地, 可持续生计, 旅游依赖, 多元Logit, 武陵源

Abstract:

Given that ecological resettlement has a far reaching effect on household livelihood,we constructed a sustainable livelihoods index system of ecological relocation households in the Wulingyuan world heritage area. We analyzed differences in households’ livelihoods between immigrant households and non-immigrant households and changes with respect to the dependence degree on tourism. A logit model was built to investigate how different livelihood capital factors affect immigrant and non-immigrant livelihood strategies,dependent on tourism. We found that compared with non-immigrant households' stock level of livelihood capitals, those of ecological migration household is more advantageous in the context of ecological migration project. The mean human capital of immigrant and non-immigrant households was 0.601 and 0.577,physical capital was 0.488 and 0.442,financial capital was 0.258 and 0.231,and social capital was 0.469 and 0.393,respectively. Ecological migration makes households' livelihood strategies more diverse. However, immigrant households' follow-up supportive measures for production are not adequate. Therefore, more capital and technology should be applied to variety in employment patterns of non-immigrant households. The government should perfect ecological migration project and supervise the provision of subsidies timely aiming at immigrant households. Human and financial capital are significant for immigrant and non-immigrant’s livelihood strategies. Immigrants who own better social capital are more likely to choose tourism-dominant livelihood strategies. The more material capital non-immigrants have,the more opportunity they have to choose tourism-dominant livelihood strategies. Financial capital is the lowest but has the most impact on households’ livelihoods strategies dependent on tourism. Perfecting the system of aid and credit system to improve financial capital is imperative.

Key words: heritage tourism destination, sustainable livelihood, tourism dependence, multivariate logit, Wulingyuan world heritage area