资源科学 ›› 2016, Vol. 38 ›› Issue (8): 1572-1584.doi: 10.18402/resci.2016.08.15

• • 上一篇    下一篇

青海湖流域生态服务价值时空格局变化及其影响因子研究

姜翠红1(), 李广泳2(), 程滔2, 陈占涛3, 张浩然2   

  1. 1. 北京市农林科学院农业科技信息研究所,北京 100097
    2. 国家基础地理信息中心,北京 100830
    3. 二十一世纪空间技术应用股份有限公司,北京 100096
  • 收稿日期:2016-02-26 修回日期:2016-05-26 出版日期:2016-08-25 发布日期:2016-08-25
  • 作者简介:

    作者简介:姜翠红,女,山东肥城人,副研究员,主要从事土地利用与气候变化,农业资源评价等。E-mail:caujiangch@126.com

  • 基金资助:
    国家自然科学基金项目(41401057);国家测绘地理信息局2016年国家基础测绘科技与标准计划项目(2016KJ0202)

Spatial-temporal pattern variation and impact factors of ecosystem service values in the Qinghai Lake Watershed

JIANG Cuihong1(), LI Guangyong2(), CHENG Tao2, CHEN Zhantao3, ZHANG Haoran2   

  1. 1. Institute of Agricultural Sci-tech Information,Beijing Academy of Agricultural and Forestry Sciences ,Beijing 100097,China
    2. National Geomatics Center of China,Beijing 100830,China
    3. Twenty First Century Aerospace Technology Co.,Ltd,Beijing 100096,China
  • Received:2016-02-26 Revised:2016-05-26 Online:2016-08-25 Published:2016-08-25

摘要:

生态系统服务价值核算对于环境可持续性、人类福祉与经济发展分析、政策框架制定具有重要参考意义。 本研究选取以高寒草地为主要覆盖类型的青海湖流域为研究区域,采用从植被茂盛程度和提供生态服务的有效时间两个维度修正后的EGESV模型,分别对青海湖流域2000年、2012年生态服务价值进行评估并分析了其空间格局变化特征及其影响因子。研究结果表明,2012年青海湖流域内各覆盖类型提供的生态服务价值总量为157.93亿元,比2000年增加了1.24亿元。2000年各覆盖类型提供的生态服务价值总量呈现水域>草地>森林>农田>荒漠>城镇,2012年荒漠生态服务价值总量超过农田的生态服务价值总量。不同的土地覆盖类型空间格局在整体空间上决定着青海湖流域生态服务价值空间格局的异质性。由于草地生态系统内部植被茂盛程度、生长季长度的差异,生态服务价值在空间上整体呈现纬度地带性,部分区域表现出垂直地带性变化特征。受人类活动、气候变化的双重干扰,流域内生态服务价值空间格局变化明显,呈现部分地区高生态服务价值的集聚化分布向均匀化转变,草地生态服务价值在空间上整体升高,青海湖高生态服务价值区域范围扩张。人类活动干扰下的土地利用变化是流域内生态服务价值总量降低的主要原因,而气候变化对流域生态系统的潜在影响利于流域生态服务价值总量的增加。该研究结果可为政府制定气候变化趋势下青海湖流域生态环境保护政策提供科学的依据。

关键词: 生态服务价值, 时空格局, 土地覆盖, 植被动态, 生长季, 青海湖流域

Abstract:

The Qinghai Lake watershed has mostly alpine meadow cover. We used a modified Costanza’s model,revised to incorporate the extent of vegetation lushness and the effective time of vegetation providing ecosystem services to evaluate ecosystem service values (ESV)and analyze spatial patterns for the year 2000 and 2012. The results show that the total ESV of the Qinghai Lake watershed was 1.54×1012 CNY,a rise of 1.20×108 CNY on 2000. Water was the main source of Qinghai Lake watershed ESV,followed by grassland,woodland,farmland,and desert in 2000; however,the total ESV of desert exceeded farmland because of farmland area decline and desert area increases in 2012. Different land cover type spatial patterns in the whole space determined spatial pattern heterogeneity for ESVs in the Qinghai Lake watershed. Grassland ESV showed a latitudinal zonal pattern across the whole space,while some areas showed vertical zonal variation because of vegetation coverage and growing season changes across latitudes and vertical zones. ESV spatial patterns change significantly under the double disturbance of human activities and climate change,some regions with high ESVs from concentration distribution to uniform,grassland ESV in the space increased,and the range of Qinghai Lake with high ESV expanded. Land use change under human disturbance was the main reason to reduce total ESV,and the potential impact of climate change on ecosystems helps to increase ESV of the watershed. These data provide a scientific basis for the government to make ecological environmental protection policy under climate change for the Qinghai Lake watershed.

Key words: ecosystem services value, Spatial-temporal pattern, land cover, vegetation dynamics, growing season, Qinghai Lake watershed