资源科学 ›› 2016, Vol. 38 ›› Issue (8): 1443-1451.doi: 10.18402/resci.2016.08.04

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呼伦贝尔生态功能区草地退化的时空特征

万华伟1(), 高帅2, 刘玉平1, 臧春鑫3, 许时光2   

  1. 1. 环境保护部卫星环境应用中心,北京 100029
    2. 中国科学院遥感与数字地球研究所遥感科学国家重点实验室,北京 100101
    3. 中国环境科学研究院,北京 100012
  • 收稿日期:2016-01-10 修回日期:2016-07-13 出版日期:2016-08-25 发布日期:2016-08-25
  • 作者简介:

    作者简介:万华伟,女,山东东阿人,博士,正高级工程师,主要从事定量遥感应用、生态系统与生物多样性遥感监测与评价相关研究。E-mail:livelyhw@163.com

  • 基金资助:
    国家自然科学基金项目(41271348);国家高技术研究发展计划(863计划)项目(2012AA12A310);国家高分辨率对地观测重大专项项目(05-Y30B02-9001-13/15)

Grassland degradation monitoring and spatio-temporal variation analysis of the Hulun Buir Ecological Function Region

WAN Huawei1(), GAO Shuai2, LIU Yuping1, ZANG Chunxin3, XU Shiguang2   

  1. 1. Satellite Environmental Application Center,Ministry of Environmental Protection,Beijing 100029,China
    2. State Key Laboratory of Remote Sensing Science,Institute of Remote Sensing and Digital Earth,Chinese Academy of Sciences,Beijing 100101,China
    3. Chinese Academy of Environmental Sciences,Beijing 100012,China
  • Received:2016-01-10 Revised:2016-07-13 Online:2016-08-25 Published:2016-08-25

摘要:

草地退化已经成为当前重要的生态环境和社会经济问题,遥感和地理信息系统技术的发展为草地退化问题的研究提供了新的手段和方法。本文利用长时间序列的MODIS数据,采用基于植被覆盖度的草地退化监测方法,对2003-2012年10年期间呼伦贝尔生态功能区草地进行了动态监测,并结合土地利用类型变化和气候数据对草地退化指数的年际变化进行了驱动力分析。结果表明:2003-2012年,呼伦贝尔草地生态环境表现较为脆弱,草地退化指数年际间变化剧烈;生态功能区草地退化等级全区呈差异分布,西部地区较中东部地区退化现象严重,但是近几年西部地区草地退化现象有所好转,东部地区有所加重;结合气象和人为因素综合分析表明,极端气候和采矿、工业建设等人类活动是功能区草地生态系统质量变化的主要驱动力。

关键词: 草地生态系统, 草地退化, 遥感监测, 气候变化, 时空特征, 呼伦贝尔生态功能区

Abstract:

Grassland degeneration has resulted in a series of social,economic and ecosystem environmental problems,so monitoring changes in grassland is very important. With the development of technology,Remote Sensing (RS)and GIS provide new means for the study of grassland degeneration. Based on the classification of grassland degradation degree calculated by vegetation coverage,we introduced the Grassland Degradation Index (GDI)to characterize grassland degradation in our focal area. The value range of GDI is from 0 to 5. When GDI is large,it means that the area of grassland degradation is more serious. When GDI>4,it means there is extremely severe degradation and when GDI <1,it shows that there is no degradation of pasture in the area. Hulun Buir Grassland was dynamically monitored from 2003 to 2012 using long time series of MODIS data and the two indicators of vegetation coverage and GDI. Finally,the driving force of changes during the ten years were analyzed combined with meteorological data. The results indicate that the Hulun Buir Grassland Ecosystem is fragile,and interannual variability of GDI is dramatic. There is spatial heterogeneity in the grassland degradation degree:grassland degrades more seriously in the west than in the central and eastern regions. In recent years,however,grassland degradation in the central and eastern region has aggravated while the west region has improved. Moreover,the comprehensive analysis of meteorological and artificial factors shows that changes in Hulun Buir Grassland Ecosystem quality are mainly affected by extreme climate,mining and industrial construction.

Key words: grassland ecosystem, grassland degradation, remote sensing monitoring, climate change, temporal and spatial characters, Hulun Buir Ecological Function Region