资源科学 ›› 2016, Vol. 38 ›› Issue (6): 1129-1139.doi: 10.18402/resci.2016.06.12

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1979-2014年中国气候舒适度空间格局及时空变化

孔钦钦1,2(), 郑景云1(), 王新歌1,2   

  1. 1. 中国科学院地理科学与资源研究所陆地表层格局与模拟院重点实验室,北京 100101
    2. 中国科学院大学,北京 100049
  • 收稿日期:2015-07-20 修回日期:2016-03-23 出版日期:2016-06-20 发布日期:2016-06-18
  • 作者简介:

    作者简介:孔钦钦,男,河南济源人,博士生,主要从事气候变化及其影响方向研究。E-mail:kongqq.12b@igsnrr.ac.cn

  • 基金资助:
    科技基础性工作专项项目(2011FY120300);中国科学院战略性先导科技专项项目(XDA05080100);中国科学院特色研究所培育建设服务项目(TSYJS04)

Spatial pattern and temporal variation in thermal comfort in China from 1979 to 2014

KONG Qinqin1,2(), ZHENG Jingyun1(), WANG Xinge1,2   

  1. 1. Key Laboratory of Land Surface Pattern and Simulation,Institute of Geographical Sciences and Natural Resources Research,Chinese Academy of Sciences,Beijing 100101,China
    2. University of Chinese Academy of Sciences,Beijing 100049,China
  • Received:2015-07-20 Revised:2016-03-23 Online:2016-06-20 Published:2016-06-18

摘要:

基于ERA-Interim再分析资料,采用通用热气候指数(Universal Thermal Climate Index,UTCI),分析1979-2014年中国气候舒适度的空间格局和时空变化特征。结果显示:①中国除青藏高原地区外,年均UTCI呈纬向分布,由北向南增加;青藏高原地区呈“环岛状”分布。夏季“无热应力”覆盖面积最大,冬季最小;②“无热应力”频率最高值(> 70%)位于云贵高原南部,最低值(< 10%)位于青藏高原地区;极端冷应力在长江以北均有出现,内蒙古地区东部和东北北部(14%~32%),及青藏高原大部(16%~40%)最为频繁;中国中东部和新疆盆地区域均有极端热应力出现,其中塔里木盆地东部频率在4%以上;③年均UTCI的趋势在中国东北部为正,西南部为负;最大的上升和下降趋势分别位于长江三角洲((0.6~0.8)°C/10a和青藏高原西部(-0.8~0.6)°C/10a)。夏季UTCI在全国范围一致上升,冬季相反;④“无热应力”频率的趋势在中国北部为正,南部为负;上升和下降幅度最大的区域分别为青藏高原东部与黄土高原交界附近((0.8~1.5)个百分点/10a~1.5个百分点/10a))和云贵高原南部(1.5个百分点/10a~2.8个百分点/10a)。极端冷、热应力频率在中国大部分地区均为增加趋势。

关键词: 气候舒适度, 空间格局, 时空变化, ERA-Interim, 通用热气候指数, 中国

Abstract:

Based on ERA-Interim reanalysis data and Universal Thermal Climate Index (UTCI),the spatial pattern and temporal variation in thermal comfort in China from 1979-2014 was investigated. The results show that annual UTCI decreases with increasing latitude for most of China and exhibits a circular distribution on the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau. “No thermal stress” covers maximum area in summer,and minimum area in winter. From 1979 to 2014,the frequency of “no thermal stress” was highest over southern Yungui Plateau (>70%)and lowest for the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau(<10%). Most regions to the north of the Yangtze River have seen extremely strong cold stress,especially over eastern Inner Mongolia,northern Northeast China(14%~32%),and the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau(16%~40%). Extremely strong heat stress has occurred over central and eastern China and the basin area in Xinjiang province,among which the eastern Tarim Basin has the highest frequency of more than 4%. From 1979 to 2014,annual UTCI show positive trends in northeastern China and negative trends in southwestern China,with the largest increase and decrease in the Yangtze River Delta((0.6~0.8)°C/10y)and western Qinghai-Tibet Plateau((-0.8~ -0.6)°C/10y)respectively. Summer UTCI has consistently increased across China,whereas the contrary is the case for winter UTCI. “No thermal stress” has become more frequent in northern China,and less frequent in southern China,with the largest frequency increase and decrease occurring over regions near the border between the eastern Qinghai-Tibet Plateau and Loess Plateau((0.8~1.5)percent/10y)and southern Yungui Plateau((1.5~2.8)percent/10y). Extremely strong cold and heat stress have become increasingly frequent across the majority China.

Key words: thermal comfort, spatial pattern, temporal variation, ERA-interim, universal thermal climate index, China