资源科学 ›› 2016, Vol. 38 ›› Issue (5): 982-993.doi: 10.18402/resci.2016.05.17

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蒙古高原乌兰巴托-丰镇草地样带植被与土壤属性的空间分布

刘庆生1,2(), 刘高焕1(), 黄翀1, 姚治君3, 黄河清3   

  1. 1. 中国科学院地理科学与资源研究所资源与环境信息系统国家重点实验室,北京100101
    2. 江苏省地理信息资源开发与利用协同创新中心,南京 210023
    3. 中国科学院地理科学与资源研究所,北京 100101
  • 收稿日期:2015-12-10 修回日期:2016-02-05 出版日期:2016-05-25 发布日期:2016-05-23
  • 作者简介:

    作者简介:刘庆生,男,山西忻州人,博士,副研究员,研究方向为生态环境遥感。E-mail:liuqs@lreis.ac.cn

  • 基金资助:
    国际科技合作项目:“蒙古高原干旱半干旱气候灾害及防治研究”(2013DFA91700)

Spatial distribution of vegetation and soil properties on the Ulan Bator-Fengzhen transect on the Mongolian Plateau

LIU Qingsheng1,2(), LIU Gaohuan1(), HUANG Chong1, YAO Zhijun3, HUANG Heqing3   

  1. 1. State Key Laboratory of Resources and Environment Information System,Institute of Geographic Sciences and Natural Resources Research,Chinese Academy of Sciences,Beijing 100101,China
    2. Jiangsu Center for Collaborative Innovation in Geographical Information Resource Development and Application,Nanjing 210023,China
    3. Institute of Geographic Sciences and Natural Resources Research,Chinese Academy of Sciences,Beijing 100101,China;
  • Received:2015-12-10 Revised:2016-02-05 Online:2016-05-25 Published:2016-05-23

摘要:

荒漠化是全球性的一个环境问题。植被与土壤是土地荒漠化研究的主体,综合分析植被与土壤特征及其空间分布,对于研究干旱区、半干旱区荒漠化发生、发展过程具有重要的理论和现实意义。基于2013年8月蒙古高原乌兰巴托-丰镇草地样带植被与土壤调查数据,对其空间分布特征进行了分析,结果表明:蒙古高原乌兰巴托-丰镇草地样带上,植被覆盖度、植物种类数量、土壤有机质、土壤速效钾、土壤砂粒百分比具有相似的空间分布规律,呈现南北高,中间低的空间分布形态;土壤相对干旱、土壤盐渍化程度轻,蒙古国境内土壤以中性为主,中国内蒙古境内土壤以碱性为主;蒙古国境内的草地样方出现灌丛的现象比中国内蒙古境内多,从一个侧面反映了蒙古国草地退化相对严重;蒙古国境内土壤全氮极贫乏、中国内蒙古境内土壤全氮相对丰富。从一个侧面反映了中国内蒙古境内相对发达的农业开发和人类活动影响。研究成果可为区域植被恢复和荒漠化防治提供科学依据和资料支撑。

关键词: 蒙古高原, 草地样带, 植被, 土壤特征, 空间分布

Abstract:

Desertification is a major global environmental problem. Vegetation and soil are the main targets of land desertification research. Comprehensive analysis of vegetation and soil properties and their spatial distribution are important for combating desertification and restoring vegetation in arid and semi arid regions. Based on vegetation and soil investigation data for the Ulan Bator-Fengzhen transect acquired in August 2013,the spatial distribution and statistical characteristics of vegetation and soil were studied. We found that vegetation coverage,number of plant species,soil organic matter,soil available potassium and soil sand percentage along the Ulan Bator-Fengzhen transect have a similar spatial distribution characteristics whereby high values exist in northern and southern parts of the transect (Ulan Bator,Dundgovi of Mongolia,and Xilinhot,Ulanqab of Inner Mongolia,China)and low values exist in the center (From Dornogovi of Mongolia to Erenhot of Inner Mongolia,China). In general,soils of the Ulan Bator-Fengzhen transect are drier,and the degree of soil salinization is minor. The majority of soils in Mongolian parts of the transect belong to neutral soils,and soils in the Inner Mongolian parts of the transect are alkaline. A brush exists in the sampling sites of Mongolia more frequently than in Inner Mongolia which indicates that grassland desertification in Mongolia is more serious. Soils in the Mongolian transect lack total nitrogen,and conversely,soils in the Inner Mongolian transect have abundant total nitrogen,reflecting the relatively developed agriculture and human activities in Inner Mongolia. The results from this paper provide a scientific basis for prevention and control of desertification on the Mongolian Plateau.

Key words: Mongolian Plateau, grassland transect, vegetation, soil properties, spatial distribution