资源科学 ›› 2016, Vol. 38 ›› Issue (5): 970-981.doi: 10.18402/resci.2016.05.16

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基于问卷调查的内蒙古典型草原牧区气候灾害时空格局与应对措施

韩鹏1,2(), 闫慧敏1(), 黄河清1, 白雪红1,3, 吴怀静4   

  1. 1.中国科学院地理科学与资源研究所,北京 100101
    2. 河南社会科学院城市与环境研究所,郑州 450002
    3. 中国科学院大学,北京100049
    4. 华北水利水电大学建筑学院,郑州 450046
  • 收稿日期:2015-11-03 修回日期:2016-04-25 出版日期:2016-05-25 发布日期:2016-05-23
  • 作者简介:

    作者简介:韩鹏,男,河南省南阳人,博士,主要研究领域为自然资源管理、资源经济、资源生态。E-mail:hanpeng@foxmail.com

  • 基金资助:
    科技部国家国际科技合作专项项目(2013DFA91700);国家自然科学基金(41071344);国家社科基金(14CJY050)

Spatial-temporal distributions and countermeasures to climate disasters based on pastoral household questionnaires in typical grassland pastoral areas of Inner Mongolia

HAN Peng1,2(), YAN Huimin1(), HUANG Heqing1, BAI Xuehong1,3, WU Huaijing4   

  1. 1. Institute of Geographic Sciences and Natural Resources Research,Chinese Academy of Sciences,Beijing 100101,China
    2. Institute of Urban Development,Henan Academy of Social Sciences,Zhengzhou 450002,China
    3. University of Chinese Academy of Sciences,Beijing 100049,China
    4. School of Architecture,North China University of Water Resources and Electric Power,Zhengzhou 450046,China
  • Received:2015-11-03 Revised:2016-04-25 Online:2016-05-25 Published:2016-05-23

摘要:

牧户是草原牧区的最基本经济社会单元,对气候灾害极为敏感。基于问卷访谈获取的第一手数据,本文对内蒙古典型草原牧区主要气候灾害的时空分布和区域应对措施进行了系统分析。结果表明:①研究区内雪灾发生几率自东向西递减趋势显著,多次雪灾和多次严重雪灾分别主要发生在以锡林郭勒盟为代表的中部地区中东部与南部和以呼伦贝尔为代表的东部地区;而降水量居中的内蒙古中部区域旱灾发生的几率略高于干旱的西部地区,尤其是在夏秋季节中部和东部牧区更易受到干旱的威胁;②旱灾发生时,牧户主要通过灾中转场放牧、购买草饲料、出售牲畜等措施应对,而雪灾应对措施则主要以购买草饲料为主,东部地区和中部地区相当比例的牧户采取了在秋季备足草料的预防措施;③政府采取以尽快恢复生活为主的实物帮助和以增强恢复生产能力为辅的资金帮助对应对旱灾和雪灾效果显著。

关键词: 内蒙古典型草原牧区, 牧户问卷调查, 气候灾害, 分布格局, 应对措施

Abstract:

Herder households are the smallest economic and social units of grassland use in China and highly sensitive to climate disasters. Based on data from questionnaire surveys we conducted a systematic study to discover the spatial-temporal distributions and countermeasures to climate disasters in pastoral areas of Inner Mongolia, the biggest pastoral area in China. We found that the probability of snow disasters have a minimized trend from east to west,and serious disasters take place mainly in the central-eastern area (represented by Xilingol League)and eastern area (represented by Hulun buir League). The odds of drought in the central area,which has a medium level of precipitation,are slightly higher than in the west (the driest place of the three areas) and the central and eastern areas easily suffer from drought in summer and autumn. When droughts take place,pastoral households mainly graze elsewhere,buy forage and grass,and sell animals. Meanwhile,herdspeople in the study area mainly deal with snow disasters by buying forage and a considerable proportion of pastoral households in the central and eastern areas take preparing enough forge in autumn as preventive action. Government measures such as supplying forage and money have a significant impact on reconstruction after drought and dzud disasters.

Key words: typical grassland pastoral area in Inner Mongolia, herdsmen questionnaires, climate disaster, spatial-temporal distribution, countermeasures