资源科学 ›› 2016, Vol. 38 ›› Issue (5): 825-836.doi: 10.18402/resci.2016.05.03

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塔里木盆地生态用地分类及其时空变化研究

刘芳(), 张红旗()   

  1. 中国科学院地理科学与资源研究所陆地表层格局与模拟院重点实验室,北京 100101
  • 收稿日期:2015-12-10 修回日期:2016-01-15 出版日期:2016-05-25 发布日期:2016-05-23
  • 作者简介:

    作者简介:刘芳,女,河北石家庄市人,博士,主要从事土地利用变化及其生态环境效应研究。E-mail:liuf.08s@igsnrr.ac.cn

  • 基金资助:
    国家科技支撑项目(2014BAC15B03)

Ecological land use mapping and spatio-temporal dynamics in the Tarim Basin

LIU Fang(), ZHANG Hongqi()   

  1. Key Laboratory of Land Surface Pattern and Simulation,Institute of Geographic Sciences and Natural Resources Research,Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100101,China
  • Received:2015-12-10 Revised:2016-01-15 Online:2016-05-25 Published:2016-05-23

摘要:

西北干旱区生态用地能有效防治和减缓土地荒漠化的发生、发展,对维护绿洲稳定和生态安全具有重要作用。本研究以塔里木盆地为例,构建西北干旱区生态用地分类系统,研发基于多源数据、适合大尺度的生态用地提取技术,获得1980s末、2000年和2010年三期生态用地空间分布图,分析了不同类型生态用地的规模、空间分布及时空动态特征。研究表明:①2010年塔里木盆地生态用地面积为10.77万km2,其中人工绿洲型、荒漠植被型、天然绿洲型、盐碱型和湿地型生态用地面积分别占到生态用地总面积的11.23%、59.61%、14.67%、9.66%和4.92%,且具有明显的流域分布特征:塔里木河干流、克里雅河诸小河、车尔臣河诸小河、和田河流域和开都-孔雀河流域(开-孔河流域)的荒漠植被型生态用地和天然绿洲型生态用地占主体,其余流域的人工绿洲型生态用地和盐碱型生态用地面积比例较高;②1980s末-2010年期间生态用地净减少9769.05km2,荒漠植被型生态用地和天然绿洲型生态用地分别减少1.19万km2和1612.65km2,其它类型生态用地增加;③生态环境相对脆弱的流域以生态用地转为荒漠为主,占转移面积的55%以上,而绿洲农业发达的流域以人工绿洲型生态用地转为耕地为主,占转移面积的50%以上;④1980s末-2000年和2000-2010年两个时段变化特征因生态用地类型和流域而异。人类活动是区域生态用地变化的主要驱动力,人工绿洲的扩张和生态用地的荒漠化是生态用地面积减少的主要原因。

关键词: 生态用地, 分类系统, 时空变化, 塔里木盆地

Abstract:

Ecological land use can provide effective control and alleviation of desertification,which is important for oasis stability and ecological security in arid Northwestern China. Taking Tarim Basin as a case study,we established a classification system of ecological land use for arid Northwestern China and developed an algorithm to map ecological land use classification using multi-source datasets at large scales. Spatial distribution maps of ecological land use were obtained for the late 1980s,2000 and 2010. The area,spatial pattern,and spatio-temporal dynamic characteristic of different ecological land use types were analyzed. Ecological land use in the Tarim Basin was 10.77×104km2 in 2010,with the proportions of artificial-oasis,desert-vegetation,native-oasis,saline,and wetland types of ecological land use at 11.23%,59.61%,14.67%,9.66%,and 4.92%,respectively. The spatial distribution of different ecological land use types showed obvious differences among nine watersheds. For the main streams of the Tarim River,Keriya River Basin,Qarqan River Basin,Hotan River Basin,and Kaidu-Kongque River Basin,desert-vegetation and native-oasis types were the major ecological land uses. Whereas,for the Aksu River Basin,Weigan River Basin,Kashgar River Basin,and Yarkand River Basin (all with advanced irrigation agriculture),large areas of artificial-oasis type and saline type of ecological land use were present. Ecological land use decreased 9769.05km2 from the late 1980s to 2010,with a decrease in desert-vegetation type and native-vegetation type of ecological land use and increase in other types of ecological land use. For watersheds dominated by fragile ecosystem conditions,ecological land use was mainly converted to desert,accounting for over 55% of the total area of ecological land use transformation,while for the watersheds dominated by advanced oasis agriculture,artificial-oasis ecological land use converted to arable land was the major type,accounting for over 50% of the total area of ecological land use transformation. For the two periods (late 1980s-2000 and 2000-2010),spatial dynamics varied with watersheds and ecological land use types. Ecological land use changes were driven by human activities. The decrease in ecological land use was due to the expansion of artificial oases and its degradation.

Key words: ecological land use, classification system, spatio-temporal dynamics, Tarim Basin