资源科学 ›› 2016, Vol. 38 ›› Issue (5): 814-824.doi: 10.18402/resci.2016.05.02

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中国沿海不透水地表变化特征分析

翟俊(), 肖桐(), 杨旻, 孙晨曦   

  1. 环境保护部卫星环境应用中心,北京 100094
  • 收稿日期:2015-07-24 修回日期:2016-03-23 出版日期:2016-05-25 发布日期:2016-05-23
  • 作者简介:

    作者简介:翟俊,男,山西朔州人,博士,主要从事土地利用变化遥感监测。E-mail:zhaij@lreis.ac.cn

  • 基金资助:
    国家自然科学基金项目(41501484);国家科技支撑计划项目(2013BAC03B01);国家863项目(2012AA12A310)

Characteristics of impervious surface changes across coastal China

ZHAI Jun(), XIAO Tong(), YANG Min, SUN Chenxi   

  1. Satellite Environment Center,Ministry of Environmental Protection,Beijing 100094,China
  • Received:2015-07-24 Revised:2016-03-23 Online:2016-05-25 Published:2016-05-23

摘要:

海岸带是当前经济发展的前沿地带,由于其便利的交通环境使得人类对该区域的利用程度逐渐增强。同时海岸带地区也是生态系统较为脆弱的地区,是生态系统的交错区和过渡带,长期的过度开发与利用势必会导致该区域生态环境的恶化。本文以遥感获取的区域不透水地表分布数据为基础,对研究区内不透水地表面积与区域经济社会发展的关键指标进行了相关分析,通过分析海岸带10km缓冲区内不透水地表扩展与生态用地之间的占补关系发现:①2000-2008年,中国海岸带不透水地表面积持续增加,与经济和人口要素呈正相关关系。总体来看,相比人口密度,沿海各县GDP密度与区域地表不透水率具有更好的相关性。9年间,沿海地区GDP密度明显提升,沿海各县平均增加了2986.8万元/km2。人口密度平均增加了181人/km2;②从2000-2008年,中国海岸带不透水地表的扩展包括新增不透水地表和不透水率增加。新增不透水地表主要以占用耕地和生态用地为主。不透水地表的扩展受到当地自然地理特征的制约,例如地形、海拔、坡度等因素;③本研究选取的七个典型区海岸带不透水地表扩展均以占用耕地为主,但在不同缓冲区范围内,不透水地表占用耕地和生态用地强度表现出明显的区域差异特点。南部的三个典型区(北部湾、海峡西岸、珠三角)海岸带不透水地表的扩展占用生态用地强度高于北部三个典型区(京津唐、辽东湾及辽东半岛、山东半岛),这主要由于这些区域生态用地面积比例较高而引起。在未来的海岸带保护与开发规划中,应综合考虑生态本底的区域差异,进而寻求更合理的生态用地、耕地和建设用地比例。

关键词: 不透水地表, 海岸带, 社会经济, 生态用地, 空间分析

Abstract:

The coastal zone is a frontier zone of economic development in China. The degree of utilization of the coastal zone is gradually increased because of convenient transportation. The coastal zone comprises fragile ecosystem and ecotones. Therefore,long-term over-exploitation and utilization would cause serious deterioration of ecological environment. This article analyzed relationships between key indicators of regional economic and social development and impervious surface area from remote sensing,and occupancy compensation relationships between impervious surface expansion and ecological land reduction. We found that during 2000-2008,the area of coastal zone impervious surface continued to increase in China and was positively correlated with economics and population. In general,GDP density had a better correlation with impervious surface rate than population. In the nine years,economic value added per unit of land improved. The average added value was 29.868 million CNY per square kilometer. Population density increased by an average of 181 persons per square kilometer. From 2000-2008, the expansion of the impervious surface of China's coastal zone included the increase of impervious surface area and impervious surface ratio. The increase of impervious surface area were mainly come from the occupation of cultivated land and ecological land. The expansion of impervious surface was constrained by the local natural geographical features, such as topography, elevation, slope and other factors. The impervious surface expansion were mainly from occupation of cultivated land in the seven economic zones coast. However, in different buffer levels, the impervious surface occupation intensity of cultivated land and ecological land showed obvious regional difference. The southern three economic zones (Beibu Gulf zone, west coast of the Taiwan Strait zone, the Pearl River Delta zone) had higher strength then the northern three economic zones(Beijing-Tianjin-Tangshan zone, Liaodong Bay and Liaodong Peninsula zone, Shandong Peninsula zone) in impervious surface occupation of ecological land. The reason may be that these regions have large area proportion of ecological land. In the future,the protection and development planning of the coastal zone should consider the regional differences of the ecological background, and then seek a more reasonable proportion of ecological land, cultivated land and construction land.

Key words: impervious surface, coastal zone, socioeconomic, ecological land, spatial analysis