资源科学 ›› 2016, Vol. 38 ›› Issue (4): 777-789.doi: 10.18402/resci.2016.04.19

• 资源管理 • 上一篇    下一篇

美国湿地保护制度变迁研究

陈溪1, Magdeline LABA2, Robertson MORGAN3, Barbara COSENS4, 王子彦1, 陈雪5, James ANDERSON6, Marinus OTTE7, Christopher CRAFT8, David FELDMAN9, 李杨帆10, 刘晶岚11, Patrick SULLIVAN2(), 吕宪国12()   

  1. 1.大连理工大学人文与社会科学学院,大连 116024
    2. 康奈尔大学自然资源系,美国 Ithaca 14853
    3. 威斯康辛大学地理系,美国 Madison 53706
    4. 爱荷华大学法学院,美国 Moscow 83844
    5. 深圳大学管理学院,深圳 518060
    6. 西佛吉尼亚大学环境研究中心,美国Morgantown 26506
    7. 北达科他州立大学生物科学系,美国 Fago 58108
    8. 印第安纳大学布鲁明顿分校公共与环境管理学院,美国Bloomington 47405
    9. 加州大学尔湾分校规划系,美国Irvine 92697
    10. 厦门大学环境与生态学院,厦门 361005
    11. 北京林业大学自然保护区学院,北京 100083
    12. 中国科学院东北地理与农业生态研究所,长春 130102
  • 收稿日期:2015-08-24 修回日期:2015-12-15 出版日期:2016-04-25 发布日期:2016-04-25
  • 作者简介:

    作者简介:陈溪,男,湖南湘潭人,博士,主要从事湿地政策、城市发展研究。E-mail:chenxi840615@126.com

  • 基金资助:
    国家公派留学基金项目(2011-2013);康奈尔大学Jeffrey Sean Lehman基金项目(2012-2013)

Study on US wetland protection institution change

CHEN Xi1, Magdeline LABA2, Robertson MORGAN3, Barbara COSENS4, WANG Ziyan1, CHEN Xue5, James ANDERSON6, Marinus OTTE7, Christopher CRAFT8, David FELDMAN9, LI Yangfan10, LIU Jinglan11, Patrick SULLIVAN2(), LV Xianguo12()   

  1. 1. School of Humanity and Social Sciences,Dalian Univ. of Technology,Dalian 116024,China
    2. Department of Natural Resources,Cornell University,Ithaca 14853, USA
    3. Department of Geography,University of Wisconsin,Madison 53706, USA
    4. College of Law,University of Idaho,Moscow 83844 , USA
    5. School of Management,Shenzhen University,Shenzhen 518060,China
    6. Environmental Research Center,West Virginia University,Morgantown 26506,USA
    7. Department of Biological Sciences,North Dakota State University,Fago 58108,USA
    8. School of Public and Environmental Affairs,Indiana University,Bloomington 47405,USA
    9. Department of Planning,University of California,Irvine 92697,USA
    10. College of the Environment and Ecology,Xiamen University,Xiamen 361005,China
    11. School of Nature Conservation,Beijing Forestry University,Beijing 100083,China
    12. Northeast Institute of Geography and Agroecology,China Academy of Sciences,Changchun 130102,China
  • Received:2015-08-24 Revised:2015-12-15 Online:2016-04-25 Published:2016-04-25

摘要:

本文提出了分析湿地保护制度变迁的理论框架,使不同国家的湿地保护制度研究能在统一语境下比较。首先基于科学计量学和系统研究方法筛选出公众、科学、政府和法律为影响湿地保护制度变迁的四个关键要素,并依赖博弈论工具建立了分析美国湿地保护制度的理论架构。基于这一架构,本文对包括关键利益相关者、政策执行路径、政策工具和管理挑战等内容的美国湿地政策史进行了讨论。对美国湿地保护制度的演化进行了四阶断之划分:“西进运动”与全民开垦(1900年之前)、“水鸟保护”与公众参与(1900-1970年)、核心法律与科学研究(1971-1980年)和完善制度与新的挑战(1980年至今)。分析得出如下结论:在湿地保护制度中,公众是源头、科学是前提、有效的政府管治和将湿地保护的规则和与政策制度化是关键。通过借鉴美国湿地保护制度变迁研究,本文构建了湿地保护制度变迁的“竹节模式”经验性模型,揭示了各动因之间的作用机理。虽然美国湿地保护制度也面临着公众教育、科学定义和政府管辖权等挑战,但中国的湿地管理者与政策制定者仍可从美国湿地政策执行的历史背景中吸取经验。同时本文的理论分析结构也可为自然资源及管理策略的研究提供参考。

关键词: 湿地, 美国, 湿地保护, 制度变迁, 竹节模式

Abstract:

The four key elements of public opinion,science,government and law were used to construct an empirical model built upon Game Theory. This theoretical framework,in which the wetland management policies of different countries can be compared,demonstrates the mechanism by which the four key elements interact to develop environmental policy and protect wetlands. Based on this empirical model,the history of wetland policies in the USA including key stakeholders,policy implementation approaches,policy instruments and management challenges were discussed. Evolution of the institution that protects American wetlands is broken down into four stages:Westward Movement and Reclamation (pre-1900),Waterfowl Protection and Public Participation (1900-1970),Core Laws and Scientific Research (1971-1980)and Improved Institutions and New Challenges (1980-present). Wetland policies originate with public opinions and beliefs,scientific knowledge is a prerequisite for policy implementation and,lastly,effective governmental jurisdiction and institutionalization of wetland protection regulation and policy are critical. Although public education,scientific definition and governmental jurisdiction are challenging,Chinese wetland managers and policy makers can learn from the implementation of USA wetland policies. The analysis outlined in this paper is a template that other natural resource studies can follow when developing natural resource strategies.

Key words: wetlands, USA, wetlands protection, institution change, Bamboo Node Model