资源科学 ›› 2016, Vol. 38 ›› Issue (4): 631-644.doi: 10.18402/resci.2016.04.06

• 能源与碳排放 • 上一篇    下一篇

中国港口煤炭进出口格局演变及动力机制

王成金1(), 王伟1,2,3   

  1. 1.中国科学院地理科学与资源研究所,北京 100101
    2. 中国科学院大学,北京 100049
    3. 北京师范大学地理学与遥感科学学院,北京 100875
  • 收稿日期:2015-05-27 修回日期:2015-11-06 出版日期:2016-04-25 发布日期:2016-04-25
  • 作者简介:

    作者简介:王成金,男,山东沂水县人,博士,研究员,博士生导师,从事交通地理与区域发展的研究。E-mail:cjwang@igsnrr.ac.cn

  • 基金资助:
    国家自然科学基金项目(41571113)

Development of import-export coal trade by port on minaland China:spatial pattern,evolution and dynamics

WANG Chengjin1(), WANG Wei1,2,3   

  1. 1. Institute of Geographical Sciences and Natural Resources Research,Chinese Academy of Sciences,Beijing 100101,China
    2. University of Chinese Academy of Sciences,Beijing 100049,China
    3. School of Geography,Beijing Normal University,Beijing 100875,China
  • Received:2015-05-27 Revised:2015-11-06 Online:2016-04-25 Published:2016-04-25

摘要:

中国作为煤炭生产和消费的大国,保障煤炭供应是国民经济建设的战略性任务,并影响着国家运输网络构建与进出口贸易。本文在回顾20世纪70年代末期以来中国煤炭进出口发展过程的基础上,刻画了中国从煤炭净出口国向净进口国转变及进出口关系的演变过程;详细分析了中国港口的煤炭进口和出口吞吐量格局的演变过程、基本特征及区域集聚性,认为近年来中国煤炭进出口“南进北出”格局向“南进北出又北进”格局迅速转变;进而绘制了中国煤炭进口的国别网络和中转配送网络,指出部分沿海港口成为煤炭一程接卸和二程配送的枢纽。然后,从煤炭供需关系与耗能产业扩张、煤炭产业政策、市场价格机制、运输瓶颈与生态文明建设等因素,深入分析了中国煤炭进出口格局快速演变的动力机制,并指出中国煤炭进口量的近期爆发性增长是一种短期市场行为,未来仍将保持在高位,但增长速度将下滑。

关键词: 中国, 煤炭进出口, 配送网络, 格局演变, 动力机制

Abstract:

China is a big country in coal production and consumption. How to support coal supply is a strategic task for China and this influences transport networks and the import-export trade in coal. Ports ares the most important transit nodes in the transportation of coal and here we studied the development of coal trade by port. We first review the process of coal import and export since the end of the 1970s in China and describe China's transformation from a net exporter of coal to a net importer. The spatial patterns of coal import traffic and export traffic for China`s ports are analyzed,especially spatial features and centralized regions. The results showed that in recent years the spatial pattern of ‘South import and North export' of Chinese port's coal imports and exports transformed rapidly into that of ‘South import,North import and export'. We depict the national network of China`s coal trade and one-way unloading and two-way distribution network. The results indicate that several seaports have become a hub between one-way unloading and two-way distribution. We dicuss the dynamics of rapid evolution of China's coal trade pattern,from several aspects of supply-demand relationship,heavy industries of coastal region,policies related to coal trade and market price,and transport bottlenecks. However,the current explosive growth of imported coal in China is temporal market behavior,the volume of coal will maintain a high-order position but its growth rate will decline in the future. This paper can help readers understand the current characteristics of China's coal imports and exports,and guide the construction of ports and coal transportation planning.

Key words: China, import and export coal, spatial pattern, distribution network, dynamics