资源科学 ›› 2016, Vol. 38 ›› Issue (4): 577-587.doi: 10.18402/resci.2016.04.01

• 旅游资源 •    下一篇

中国国家公园体系构建方法研究——以自然保护区为例

周睿1,2,3(), 钟林生1(), 刘家明1, 唐承财1,4, 孙雷刚1,3,5   

  1. 1.中国科学院地理科学与资源研究所,北京100101
    2.内蒙古大学历史与旅游文化学院,呼和浩特010070
    3. 中国科学院大学,北京100049
    4. 北京第二外国语学院旅游管理学院,北京100024
    5. 河北省科学院地理科学研究所,石家庄050011
  • 收稿日期:2015-06-15 修回日期:2016-02-29 出版日期:2016-04-25 发布日期:2016-04-25
  • 作者简介:

    作者简介:周睿,女,内蒙古呼和浩特人,博士生,讲师,主要从事保护地旅游与可持续旅游研究。E-mail:catherine-rui@hotmail.com

  • 基金资助:
    国家自然科学基金项目(41171435);环境保护部项目:“国家公园体制研究”

Establishing a national park category system in China

ZHOU Rui1,2,3(), ZHONG Linsheng1(), LIU Jiaming1, TANG Chengcai1,4, SUN Leigang1,3,5   

  1. 1. Institute of Geographic Sciences and Natural Resources Research,Chinese Academy of Sciences,Beijing 100101,China
    2. College of History and Tourism Culture,Inner Mongolia University,Hohhot 010070,China
    3. University of Chinese Academy of Sciences,Beijing 100049,China
    4. School of Tourism Management,Beijing International Studies University,Beijing 100024,China
    5. Hebei Province Institute of Geographic Sciences,Shijiazhuang 050011,China
  • Received:2015-06-15 Revised:2016-02-29 Online:2016-04-25 Published:2016-04-25

摘要:

中国保护地体系庞杂类型丰富,存在保护对象交叉、管理主体多头、功能定位不合理等诸多问题,因此理顺保护地体系是协调好保护与发展关系的重要内容。国家公园是一种承担自然生态资源保护和利用双重任务,能够有效协调保护与利用矛盾的保护地类型。基于国家公园内涵与功能定位的梳理,本文认为世界自然保护联盟(IUCN)保护地体系中的II类国家公园是对全球国家公园较为完整和准确的概括。将IUCN界定的国家公园入选条件归纳为面积适宜性、资源代表性、人类影响度和功能全面性,以此作为构建中国国家公园的基本标准。以中国自然保护区为例,逐条按照构建标准筛选出了55处面积不小于1 000hm2的国家级自然保护区作为中国国家公园备选单位。其中,对于人类影响程度的判定借助了ArcGIS工具与人类足迹指数数据集。

关键词: 保护地, 国家公园体系, 自然保护区, IUCN保护地体系, 人类足迹指数, 中国

Abstract:

It is inevitable that administrative managements have become disordered and function-positioning improper since the categories of protected areas in China are abundant and with overlapping protected objectives. Therefore,straightening out the protected area category system is significant to coordinate relationships between protection and development. National parks are a branch under the protected area system that undertakes dual tasks in natural ecological resource protection and utilization. Based on a literature review,this article teases out the connotation and functions of national parks worldwide and states that national park under the IUCN protected area category system is a more complete and accurate generalization for global single national parks. The basic criteria of designating any protected area to be national park are concluded according to the definition of national parks under the IUCN protected area category system. The basic criteria should consist of area suitability,nature resource representative,degree of human influence and function comprehensiveness. We then use nature reserves in China as cases to filter candidates for national parks in China. First,a global ‘national park’ should be no less than 1 000hm2. Second,nature reserves at a national level in China have been designated to be Nationally Representative for unique nature resources and ecosystem. The degree of human influence in every national nature reserve is evaluated by virtue of human footprint index dataset which indicates a degree of human activities influence to every of 100hm2 terrestrial area. Therefore,a total of 55 nature reserves in China at national levels with areas not less than 1 000hm2 are finally determined to be candidate national parks. In the end,an approach of five ‘nested’ categories of protected areas are proposed in order to meet the final criteria of functional comprehensiveness.

Key words: protected area, national park category system, nature reserve, IUCN protected area category system, Human footprint index, China