资源科学 ›› 2016, Vol. 38 ›› Issue (3): 407-413.doi: 10.18402/resci.2016.03.04

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松嫩平原盐碱地大规模开发的前期研究,灌区格局与风险控制

孙广友1(), 王海霞2   

  1. 1. 中国科学院东北地理与农业生态研究所,长春 130021
    2. 东北师范大学城市与环境科学学院,长春 130021
  • 收稿日期:2015-09-10 修回日期:2016-01-05 出版日期:2016-03-25 发布日期:2016-03-21
  • 作者简介:

    作者简介:孙广友,男,黑龙江哈尔滨市人,研究员,教授,博士生导师,主要研究领域为自然地理学,地貌与第四纪学,湿地科学,盐碱土资源.E-mail:sun_guangyou@163.com

  • 基金资助:
    中国科学院农业重大项目:"东北地区农业综合开发试验示范研究"(KN95-02-01)

Large scale development to saline-alkali soil and risk control for the Songnen Plain

SUN Guangyou1(), WANG Haixia2   

  1. 1. Northeast Institute of Geography and Agricultural Ecology,Chinese Academy of Sciences,Changchun 130021,China
    2. Urber and Environment College of Northeast Normal University,Changchun 130021,China
  • Received:2015-09-10 Revised:2016-01-05 Online:2016-03-25 Published:2016-03-21

摘要:

半个多世纪的研究查明,松嫩平原苏打盐渍土是环境要素综合作用的结果,而蒸发使地表水析盐和地下水上升地表积盐的耦合机制是主导成因.盐类以苏打为主,类型包括盐土,碱土及衍生的盐-碱化土.面积393.70万hm2,盐渍化过程还在持续.种稻排盐是改良苏打盐渍土的主要途径.古河道发现和试验示范为其大规模开发提供了可行性.大安等多个灌区建设具有强化粮食基地,优化环境和发展经济的综合效益,并成为东北地区第四大水稻区,使区域盐碱地开发形成完整格局.但是,这种盐碱地大规模开发存在使松花江和嫩江以及查干湖水体污染和土壤次生盐渍化的风险.在分析这些风险成因基础上,提出不向河湖直接排放稻田含盐碱尾水,并在查干湖外围建设湿地水处理系统的控制措施,防止对查干湖构成污染,采取将水田布置在古河道带等措施,控制旱田次生盐渍化.

关键词: 苏打盐碱地, 研究与开发, 分布和面积, 类型与成因, 生态风险, 松嫩平原

Abstract:

Based on study for more than half a century,the formation of Songnen Plain Soda Saline-Alkline Soil is a result of the synthesis effect of environmental action: the mine cause is salt sedimentation from land surface water and underwater when the water is evaporated. Our study considered salt soil,alkaline soil and other saline-alkaline soils over an area of 393.70×104hm2. This area is stable today,but the saline-alkaline process continues. Planting rice is one known way to improve saline-alkaline soil. To test the feasibility of large-scale rice planting,the Daan Irrigation Area and Songyuan Irrigation Area were established. These projects increase the food base,improve the environment and facilitate economic development. Establishing a similar project on the Songnen Plain means it will become the fourth major rice cultivation area in northern China. However,any development on the Plain poses risks such as pollution of the Songhuajiang River and Chagan Lake,and secondary salinization. Based on assessments of these ecological risks,several measures are proposed,including embargoing end water such as saline-alkaline water from the rice-growing areas in the Songhua and Nen Rivers,and building a wetland to hold end water and avoid pollution from entering Chagan Lake. The construction of a wetland for water disposal will be a first globally.

Key words: salaine-alkaline soil, research and development, distribution and area, types and causes, ecological risks, Songnen Plain