资源科学 ›› 2016, Vol. 38 ›› Issue (1): 19-29.doi: 10.18402/resci.2016.01.03

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1973-2014年河套平原湿地变化研究

李山羊1,2(), 郭华明1(), 黄诗峰2, 马建威2, 刘海燕1, 孙亚勇2   

  1. 1.中国地质大学(北京)水资源与环境学院,北京 100083
    2. 中国水利水电科学研究院,北京 100038
  • 收稿日期:2015-04-07 修回日期:2015-07-08 出版日期:2016-01-25 发布日期:2016-01-25
  • 作者简介:

    作者简介:李山羊,男,江西遂川人,硕士生,主要从事水利遥感、地下水环境方面的研究。E-mail:lishanyang@cugb.edu.cn

  • 基金资助:
    基金项目:国家自然科学基金项目(41222020和41172224);中国地质调查局项目(12120113103700);高分辨率对地观测系统重大专项(08-Y30B07-9001-13/15)

Variation in Hetao Basin wetlands from 1973 to 2014

LI Shanyang1,2(), GUO Huaming1(), HUANG Shifeng2, MA Jianwei2, LIU Haiyan1, SUN Yayong2   

  1. 1. School of Water Resources and Environment,China university of geosciences (Beijing),Beijing 100083,China
    2. China Institute of Water Resources and Hydropower Research,Beijing 100038,China
  • Received:2015-04-07 Revised:2015-07-08 Online:2016-01-25 Published:2016-01-25

摘要:

河套平原面临着水体污染、湖泊沼泽化和盐渍化问题,研究河套平原湿地的变化及原因,为合理利用和保护河套湿地及其与湿地相关方面的研究提供参考依据。通过对1973-2014年河套平原遥感影像解译,获得了不同时期的湿地分布图,结合实地考察、气象资料与史料统计数据,对河套湿地近40年的变化和原因进行了研究。根据水文条件和人为活动的特点,把河套湿地分为灌区湿地(黄灌区和井灌区)和乌梁素海湿地。通过研究发现:河套湿地面积整体上呈增加趋势;河套黄灌区湿地面积变化受当地降雨量影响,在降雨量偏少时期,湿地面积发生明显的萎缩;乌梁素海湿地变化最为显著,从1977年开始迅速扩大,到1996年面积增加了近一倍,这与河套平原大规模兴建干渠灌溉和修建排干沟排水有关;在以地下水灌溉为主的河套灌区北部井灌区,湿地面积逐年萎缩,这与大量开采地下水灌溉耕地相关。研究表明:河套湿地在人类活动与气候共同作用下,尤其是在20世纪70年代后,发生了很大的变化。处于不同地理位置的湿地,所受的主要影响因素又有不同,湿地变化表现出很大的差异性。

关键词: 河套, 遥感影像, 湿地, 气候变化, 人类活动

Abstract:

A study on variations of wetland and their causes in the Hetao Basin was carried out against the background of water pollution,swamping of lakes and salination in order to provide references for rational utilization and protection and relevant researches of wetlands in study area. Here we examined variation in wetlands over the last 40 years based on wetland watersheds and remote sensing images of the Hetao Basin,Region,China. According to hydrologic conditions and characteristics of human activity,the study area was divided into irrigation wetlands and Wuliangsuhai wetlands;the irrigation wetlands consisted of Yellow River irrigation areas and well irrigation areas. We found that the total wetland has generally increased. The Yellow River irrigation area was greatly influenced by local precipitation and showed an obvious recession during periods of low rainfall. The Wuliangsuhai wetland changed significantly and expanded from 1977 to double in area by 1996 because of large-scale construction of canal irrigation and drainage. A progressive decrease in the area of well irrigation in the northern part of the Hetao irrigation area can be attributed to massive exploitation of groundwater for agricultural irrigation. Overall,under the influences of human activity and climate change,the Hetao wetlands have changed greatly,especially during the 1970's. The wetlands in different geographical locations suffer from different influences,resulting in distinguished changes in the area of wetland.

Key words: Hetao Basin, remote sensing, wetland, climate change, human activities